However, the resulting strain did not restore biofilm formation or pathogenicity (data not shown) suggesting that downstream genes of the hrpB operon, hrpB7 and hrcT, may be also affected in the hrpB − mutant due to polarity effects (Additional file 1: Figure S1A). Therefore, the entire region containing hrpB5, hrcN, hrpB7 and hrcT was cloned in the pBBR1MCS-5 vector (Additional file 1: Figure S1A) and the resulting MGCD0103 purchase strain (hrpB − c) was tested for its ability to trigger HR in non-host plants and disease in citrus leaves (Additional file 1: Figure S1B and S1C). As expected, the HR response in non-host plants was similar for the hrpB − c strain and X. citri (Additional file 1: Figure S1B). In host
tissue infections, the hrpB − c strain
did cause lesions, though it was less virulent than X. citri, showing a reduction in water soaking and in canker lesion formation (Additional file 1: Figure S1C). A partial complementation was also observed by RT-qPCR assays of CsLOB1. This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the Lateral Organ LY2109761 solubility dmso Boundaries (LOB) gene family of transcription factors whose expression is induced by the X. citri TAL effector protein PthA4 [21, 22]. As expected, in leaves infected with X. citri, an induction of CsLOB1 was observed, the hrpB − mutant did not induce the expression of this gene suggesting that this mutant is not secreting PthA4 and the hrpB − c strain induced CsLOB1 expression albeit at lower levels than X. citri probably due a lower amount of PthA4 LY3023414 concentration secreted by this strain (Additional file 1: Figure S1D). Given of the possibility that bacteria may be loosing the plasmids during the host plant assays, bacteria were extracted from plant tissues and quantified at different times using appropriate antibiotics and no loss of plasmid was observed even 30 days after infiltrations (data not shown). Therefore, this partial complementation may be due to the fact that these genes are expressed under the lacZ promoter and that expression levels are likely to be somewhat different from those of the endogenous very genes. This proposition is supported by recent work that shows
that lac promoter-driven expression of hrpB1 only partially complemented the hrpB1 mutant phenotype in susceptible plants, while complete complementation was observed for HR in pathogen resistant plants . For the biofilms assays, first the strains were cultured statically in 24-well PVC plates in XVM2. After seven days of growth, X. citri and hrpB −c strain were able to form mature biofilms with a conformation similar of that previously observed for X. citri strain , while the hrpB − mutant showed impaired biofilm formation (Figure 1A). Next, the strains were grown statically in borosilicate glass tubes in XVM2 medium for seven days. Staining of bacterial cells with the specific crystal violet (CV) stain showed that under these conditions X.