In this situation, event-based approaches represent a promising r

In this situation, event-based approaches represent a promising research line to develop new control strategies where the exchange of information among control agents is produced by the triggering of specific events and not by the passing of time.Another reason why event-based control is interesting is that it closer in nature to the way a human behaves as a controller. The final reason to research in event-based control is computing and communication resource utilization, that is, the reduction of the data exchange between sensors, controllers, and actuators. This reduction of information is equivalent to extend the lifetime of battery-powered wireless sensors, to reduce the computational load in embedded devices, or to reduce the network bandwidth.

Why is it then that time-triggered control still dominates? A major reason is the great difficulty involved with developing a system theory for event based control systems. Until now, most of the research lines in event-based control have tried to adapt time-based control approaches to the event-based paradigm, producing systems where time-based and event-based elements are all living together in the control loop [18]. Other developments have tried to devise pure event-based control approaches with a total lack of synchronism or sharing of clock signals among sensors, controllers, and actuators [19,20]; in this research line the control agents are always activated by specific events and it is where most difficulties emerge to produce theoretical developments to back the experimental results.

The work presented in this paper corresponds to the second category: an experimental study of pure event-based approaches.As it was said at the beginning, until now the majority of the published work in automatic control considers time-based control systems as the only paradigm to implement automatic control systems. However, when Drug_discovery taking a quick look at human behavior, it is clear that the triggering of events is the strategy we use to apply feedback control in many facets of everyday life.

For example, in a traffic jam drivers hold the safety distance among cars by braking or speeding up, but drivers do not have AV-951 precision clocks to signal when they have to observe the distance with the car in front of them; they are observing the back of the next car and when a driver subjectively considers that the safety distance is short enough s/he sends a new control action to the car – to brake -; and if the distance is long enough, then the control action is to speed-up. Another similar event-based control strategy is used every morning when we are trying to regulate by hand the water temperature when we take a shower.

Since the resonance layer is polarization-sensitive, separate res

Since the resonance layer is polarization-sensitive, separate resonance peaks occur for incident TE (electric vector normal to the plane of incidence) and TM (magnetic vector normal to the plane of incidence) polarization states. The sensor element can be prepared with standard surface chemistries to covalently attach a selective detection layer (such as antibodies or aptamers). The sensor is multifunctional as only the sensitizing surface layer needs to be chemically altered to detect different species. This sensor technology is broadly applicable to med
Recent advances in wireless communications and electronics have enabled the development of low-cost, low-power and multi-functional sensors that are small in size and communicate over short distances [1].

A wireless sensor network (WSN) is composed of a large number of small sensors with constrained energy, limited computation, communication range, and unchangeable battery power. Sensor nodes can be distributed in an outdoor environment to collect sensing data and forward it to base station via wireless channel [2�C4]. Applications of WSNs range from indoor applications such as smart homes and health monitoring in a hospital to outdoor applications such as highway traffic monitoring, combat field surveillance, security and disaster management [5�C8].In many applications, WSNs are deployed in outdoor environments.

Consequently, they are vulnerable to false data injection attacks [9] in which an adversary inject AV-951 false sensing reports into the network, through compromised nodes, with the goal of deceiving the base station or draining the constrained energy of the nodes [10].

The statistical en-route filtering scheme (SEF) [9] can filter out forged reports during the forwarding process. In the scheme, for an event, sensing nodes collaboratively generate a report which contains message authentication codes (MACs) so that each MAC is generated from a node using its symmetric keys and represents its agreement on the report [11]. As a report is forwarded towards the base station over multiple hops, each forwarding node verifies the MACs carried in the report, checking if it has any of the keys used to generate those MACs.

If it does not have any of those keys, the report is forwarded without verification. Therefore, the detection power of the SEF is affected considerably by the choice of routing path [12].The path selection method (PSM) [12] was proposed to improve the detection power of SEF. In PSM sensor nodes evaluate the detection power of each incoming path from the base station Brefeldin_A and elect the most secure path for data transmission against false data injection attacks.

r EST number Especially inter esting among these is the transpor

r EST number. Especially inter esting among these is the transport protein SFT2, as this was exclusively present in leaf samples after egg laying treatment. SFT2 is a member of the SNARE protein fam ily, which is known to function in vesicle associated mem brane fusion events during transport processes in plants. Plant SNARE proteins are thought to be involved in devel opmental processes and pathogen defense, but it remains unproven whether SFT2 functions like their yeast counter part. Conclusions While insect feeding is known to trigger major changes of the transcriptome in herbaceous and woody plants, insect egg laying has so far only been shown to elicit large scale changes in the transcriptome of herbaceous plants.

Our elm EST database shows for the first time that insect eggs can induce simi larly transcriptional changes in a woody plant, a decidu ous tree. There was a pronounced shift towards transcripts involved in general stress responses such as oxidative stress, and defense responses, phytohor mone signaling, and transport processes. Further changes were observed in primary metabolism, and a possible downregulation of photosyn thesis suggests a metabolic shift from growth and develop ment to defense. As such, this work presents a large data set from a well established, ecological natural plant insect system which will be important for further studies of the mechanisms of direct and indirect plant defenses against insects Dacomitinib and other serious pests such as the Dutch elm dis ease fungi. Methods Plants All plants originated by propagating a single genotype of the European field elm, U.

campestris, referred to as U. campestris cv. Dahlem, that originated from a forest 50 km east of Berlin, Germany. Shoots were maintained by monthly subculture on DKW propagation medium, which contained 1 mg dm 3 6 benzylaminopurine and 0. 01 mg dm 3 indole 3 butyric acid. Rooted shoots were produced by transfer ring 3 5 cm shoots from the propagation medium on DKW media containing 3 mg dm 3 IBA hormone and no BAP. After 3 5 days shoots were transferred into soil and grown in a climate chamber, 150 200 umol m 2 s 1 PAR under a 16 h 8 h light,dark photoperiod. To rear mature plants, shoots were transferred individually in plastic pots filled with potting soil. All experiments were conducted with 3 4 month old elm plants with 15 20 leaves and a height of about 50 cm.

Elms generated from this culture were found to retain their responses to the beetles. Insects Adults of Xanthogaleruca luteola were collected in the environs of Montpellier and Perpignan and in Palava. Adult bee tles and hatching larvae were reared in the laboratory in cages on Dahlem elm plants in the greenhouse under a 16 8 h LD photoperiod. Pupae were transferred in transparent plastic boxes for hatching in the climate chamber. Treatments Elm leaf samples were taken at three time points after applying five different treatments since elms are known to respond to elm leaf beetle infestation by releas

3 and MMP13 For IL 6, we observed a slight increase at the lowes

3 and MMP13. For IL 6, we observed a slight increase at the lowest concentrations, but a decrease at higher concentrations. This may be due to biphasic effects of curcumin that are based on its dual function to either scavenge or produce reactive o ygen species. However, the biphasic nature of curcumin cannot e plain that higher concentrations of curcumin strongly stimulated e pression of TNF in human intervertebral disc cells, which is different from what is described in the literature. Based on the current study we do not know showed that curcumin inhibits phosphorylation and degradation of I��B and thus translocation of the p65 subunit of NF ��B to the nucleus, indicating that inhibition of the NF ��B pathway takes place at a step before I��B phosphorylation.

In intestinal epithelial cells, curcumin seems to e ert its effects by blocking a sig nal leading to IKK activity. How ever, in our e perimental setting, curcumin did not seem Batimastat to reduce IL 1B induced nuclear translocation of NF ��B p65 or NF ��B DNA binding, which is in contrast to data obtained by Yu et al. on interverte bral disc cells. Toll like receptors We were able to demonstrate a down regulation of TLR2 mRNA e pression after treating IL 1B prestimulated IVD cells with curcumin, which confirms findings in other cell types such as monocytic THP 1 cells, HL 60 pro myelocytic leukemia cells and primary peripheral blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils. However, in a leukemia cell line, Reuter et al. showed an increase in TLR2 due to curcumin, although most inflammatory mediators were simultaneously down regulated in this study.

There is also some evidence in the literature that curcumin can reduce e pression levels of TLR4. Based on how little is known about TLRs and curcumin so far, more research is needed to establish a causal relationship between therapeutic efficacy of curcu min and TLR2 activity. MAP kinases The mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathways, including JNK, p38 and e tracellular signal regulated kinase, play an important role in the regulation of inflammatory responses. As MAP kinases are regulated by phosphorylation cascades, their activity can be determined by detecting phosphorylation levels. We found that curcumin was able to inhibit phos phorylation of JNK in IL 1B prestimulated IVD cells, which is similar to primary chondrocytes.

Import antly, pharmacological inhibition of JNK has previously been shown to suppress MMP1, MMP3 and MMP13 mRNA e pression in bovine and murine IVD cells. In contrast, phosphorylation of p38 and ERK was induced upon curcumin treatment in IL 1B prestimu lated IVD cells as well as in curcumin only treated IVD cells, with a synergistic effect of IL 1B and curcumin. It may be possible that activation of p38 and ERK led to the up regulation of TNF e pression which was observed when IL 1B pretreated and un treated IVD cells were e posed to curcumin, but our e perimental design does not allow to establish a causal relationship between MAP kin

[31] Taking an account the advantages and methods used for nanop

[31]. Taking an account the advantages and methods used for nanoparticles, many researchers have prepared modified AuNPs surfaces by the direct covalent linking of the Ab to the nanoparticles and assembling them onto the electrode surface [32]. Xu et al. developed a gold nanorods (GNRs)-Ab conjugate in which the antibody was covalently attached to GNRs with a special spatial conformation through amide (CO-NH) bonds to produce specific sensing probes for the sensitive detection of ��-fetoprotein (AFP) [33].Therefore, here we coupled anti-carbofuran Ab covalently to AuNPs with glutathione as a spacer arm. The presence of carboxyl group at the terminal end of glutathione on the AuNPs surface allowed further modification of the surface using covalent coupling reactions.

The immobilization of Ab on AuNPs was carried out through a stable covalent link between the carboxyl group on the carbon-terminal of the Ab and glutathione capped AuNPs and this process was effected by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and 1,6-diaminohexane (DAH). This kind of approach provided a stable Ab immobilization with free hapten binding sites for further immunoreaction without affecting the structure and function of the Ab. The AuNPs also are good for the immobilization of the Ab onto the electrode and preventing them from dissolving back into the bulk solution.As mentioned above, we introduce a MWCNTs, GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites and AuNPs-antibody conjugate-modified amperometric immunosensor for the detection of carbofuran.

The aim of this work was to develop a fast, simple, inexpensive, stable and highly sensitive immunosensor for carbofuran detection. The experimental conditions related to the performance of the fabricated immunosensor (the thickness of the GS-PEI-Au layer, the pH of the supporting electrolyte, immunoassay temperature and incubation time) were investigated in detail.2.?Experimental2.1. MaterialsAnti-carbofuran monoclonal antibody, carbofuran, bovine serum albumin (BSA, 96�C99%), and EDC were all purchased from Sigma (Beijing, China). HAuCl4 was from Shanghai Sinopharm Chemical Reagent Co. Ltd. (Shanghai, China). GS were obtained from Nanoon Co., Ltd. (Beijing, China). MWCNTs were purchased from Xfnano Co. Ltd. (Nanjing, China). PEI (Mn = 600) were purchased from Shanghai Crystal Pure Reagent Co. Ltd. (Shanghai, China).

Carbofuran was a standard grade product and other reagents were of analytical grade and distilled water was used throughout the experiments. Entinostat Anti-carbofuran monoclonal antibody was dissolved with 0.01 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH 7.4) processed by high-pressure sterilization and stored at 4 ��C. 0.1 M 2-(N-Morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid buffer (MES, pH 5.0) was filtered to remove impurities and bacteria before use. A PBS (0.1 M, pH 7.0) containing 5 mM [Fe(CN)6]3?/4? (1:1) and 0.1 M KCl was used as the detection solution.2.2.

All participants were informed the purpose of this study and ass

All participants were informed the purpose of this study and assured confidentiality and anonymity, and their informed consent was obtained before the study. Potential participants were excluded when they had: (1) ankle or knee symptoms within 1 month prior to the enrollment; (2) arthritic or other inflammatory diseases; (3) bone pathology; (4) neurological system dysfunction; or (5) history of ankle trauma or surgery. Six legs were excluded, and the remaining thirty legs were categorized into two groups, group H (n = 15 with higher flexibility) and group L (n = 15 with lower flexibility), considering Moseley’s criteria for leg flexibility [7]. The flexibility was defined according to the ankle RoM [8]. The participants in both groups were matched for the body weight and height (Table 1).

Besides, the participants were requested to maintain a regular diet and get adequate sleep as well as to avoid vigorous-intensity physical activities one day before the experimental trial. They were also asked for not having any food or drink or exercise at least 1 h before each test and to refrain from alcoholic and caffeine-containing drinks on the trial day.Table 1.Characteristics of the subjects grouped by Active RoM of ankle dorsiflexion, expressed in mean (SD).2.2. InstrumentationFigure 1 shows the measurement system applied in this investigation. The system measured the microcirculatory blood perfusion and electrocardiogram (ECG) from the participants simultaneously and synchronously.

The acquired analog signals were sampled via an analog-to-digital converter (ADLINK, PCI-9111DG, Taipei, Taiwan) with a sampling rate of 1,024 Hz and then analyzed using a personal computer. The location of microcirculatory measurements was on the belly of gastrocnemius muscle at the posterior of the lower leg. The ECG signals in the lead II configuration were monitored by the bio-impedance amplifier (EBI100C, BIOPAC System, Goleta, CA, USA) with surface Drug_discovery electrodes. The microcirculatory signal was detected using LDF (VMS-LDF1-HP, Moor Instruments, Axminster, Devon, UK) in a sampling frequency of 40 Hz and a skin probe (VP1-V2-HP) with optical fiber separation of 4 mm. A laser with the power of 20 mW and the wavelength of 785 nm was adopted in the applied LDF. LDF was calibrated before measurements using aqueous suspension of polystyrene latex particles.

All of the measurements were conducted according to laser safety requirements (Class 3R per IEC 60825-1:2007).Figure 1.The measurement system, the location of the measurement site of microvascular perfusion, and active gastrocnemius muscle stretching with ankle dorsiflexion.2.3. Experimental ProtocolBefore the experimental data collection, the participants stayed in the experimental environment with the temperature maintained at 26 �� 1 ��C for at least 20 min and then supine on a comfortable couch with full support of relaxed lower extremities.

To address these issues, a component-based framework has been dev

To address these issues, a component-based framework has been developed in the GiraffPlus project. In this framework, different components can be deployed to accomplish its relative task. The aggregation, fusion and filtering of data coming from the WSNs are done in specific components called gateways, which, being aware of the particular technology below them, collect and aggregate sensed data and present it in a common format for all the applications in a transparent way. The context recognition component, for example, can use these data without worrying about the particular communication protocol needed to gather them. In the same way, a specific component offers a secure and reliable channel to gather and store data, hiding all the complexity of handshaking and the replica mechanism to the application components in the common APIexposed by the low level layers (connectors) to the upper layers (applications).

In this context, the integration of all components is done by means of a distributed middleware, which is able to hide the heterogeneity of the sensor devices. This kind of architecture, composed of different layers that communicate through a middleware layer, is becoming increasingly important [6]. Since 1997, the OSGiplatform has attracted much attention among the middleware technologies, thanks to the modularity layer it adds on top of the Java programming language and the service-oriented architecture (SOA) adopted to dynamically bind service components. It has been recognized as the Java middleware, and it became mainstream in 2003, when big players, like IBM and Oracle, started to adopt OSGi as the foundation run-time for enterprise applications (i.

e., Eclipse). In the academic world, the SOCAMarchitecture [7] was one of the first to suggest an OSGi-based infrastructure for context-aware applications. In fact, OSGi is suitable for acting as a smart gateway able to link different network technologies, but still providing the easy extendability and configurability of the system, which are valua
Being Dacomitinib considered as one of the important transition elements in biological systems, vanadium is an ultra-trace metal that can be found in some marine organisms, in the prosthetic group of bromoperoxidases in certain marine algae [1�C3], as part of the nitrogenase system of some bacteria and plants [4,5], as well as in plasma and inside cells of mammals [6].

It participates in the synthesis of chlorophyll in photosynthetic organisms and is a micronutrient of marine and terrestrial species [7].In the past, vanadium compounds were used as a therapeutic agent for diabetes, anemia, chlorosis, and even for tuberculosis. It is also a tonic, antiseptic and as a spirocheticide. Nevertheless vanadium, especially as vanadium pentoxide, has a broad spectrum of known toxic effects on the respiratory, circulatory and central nervous systems, digestive organs, kidneys and skin in humans.

It results in that the research works have been mainly focused o

It results in that the research works have been mainly focused on PSCFs and scarcely involving PSNFs.However, our previous experimental results indicated that boron-doped PSNFs exhibit higher piezoresistive sensitivity (GF �� 30) at high doping concentrations than PSCFs (GF is only 20~25) at the same doping levels [20, 21]. Interestingly, as the doping level exceeds 2��1020 cm-3, the GF of PSNFs increases with elevating doping concentration [22]. This could not be explained reasonably by the existing piezoresistive model of polysilicon. Additionally, by adjusting doping concentration, PSNFs present good temperature stability (the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) is less than 10-4/��C, one order of magnitude lower than that of PSCFs; the temperature coefficient of GF (TCGF) is less than 10-3/��C, at least twice lower than that of PSCFs) [23, 24].

Moreover, since the signs of TCR and TCGF in PSNFs could be contrary by adjusting technological parameters, the temperature self-compensation of sensors may be achieved. These unique physical properties of heavily doped PSNFs make the material potential for the development of low cost, high temperature stability and miniature volume piezoresistive sensors. Consequently, in order to analyze the piezoresistive properties of highly doped PSNFs, the tunneling effect was introduced and considered as the dominant transport mechanism of carriers traversing GBs in our previous work [20, 22]. The theoretical prediction of GF versus doping concentration gives better agreement with the experimental data than the existing models [21].

Significantly, the research work by He et al. showed that silicon nanowires possess giant PRCs [2]. The interpretation of this phenomenon was given by Rowe, and the origin of the giant piezoresistance was considered to be the stress-induced modulation of the surface DRB width [3]. It seems to be relevant to the enhanced GF of PSNFs. However, for highly doped PSNFs here, the DRB width is reduced greatly so that the contribution of DRBs could be neglected and the tunneling effect becomes dominant. It will be demonstrated further in the model calculation later.In our previous research work, the dependence of the GF on film thickness indicated that highly doped PSNFs with the thickness of ~80 nm present the highest GF of 34 and the lowest TCR and TCGF.

Therefore, the film thickness was selected to be 80 nm in this paper. Nevertheless, the nano-scale Brefeldin_A thickness is not the direct origin of the enhanced GF. In fact, the reduction of film thickness causes the contraction of grain sizes, which could increase the proportion of GB barriers to grain neutral regions and enhance the influence of the tunneling effect. Namely, the film microstructure (including grain size, GB width, trap density, etc.

A K-type thermocouple was also inserted through the top of the DF

A K-type thermocouple was also inserted through the top of the DFC to monitor temperature changes inside the chamber. A decompression union (made of a stainless steel material with a 1/4�� bulkhead union [Swagelok, USA]) was installed to maintain the inner pressure of the DFC similar to air pressure. All connection lines of the DFC system were made of 1/4�� Teflon tubing.2.3. Quality control for odor samples with DFCAn experiment was performed to determine the DFC concentration equilibrium time. Sulfur dioxide, which is a non-reactive gas, was used for this experiment. A Teledyne/API-100A SO2 Analyzer (USA), was used to measure sulfur dioxide. The amount of gas for the DFC inlet and outlet was set
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) hold the promise of many new applications in the area of environment surveillance and target tracking.

In such applications, the user is interested only in the occurrence of a certain event, such as target appearances or status changes. Due to the random distribution or mobility of the targets, a certain level of sensing coverage over the field of interest should be maintained to guarantee that events of interest will be captured with minimal delay. The sensing area of a sensor node is often assumed to be a disk bound by a sensing circle of fixed radius r centered at the node. The field is said to be k-covered or have a coverage degree of k if any point contained in it is within the sensing area of at least k sensors [1]. In general, coverage degree can be considered as a measure of quality of service (QoS) of a wireless sensor network [2].

The higher the coverage degree is, the better the field is monitored. However, the constrained power supply of sensors cannot justify the scheme in which all sensors are put on duty to achieve a high coverage degree. Continuous working leads to the quick depletion of battery power and this shortens the overall network lifetime. Moreover, sensors have limited processing ability and storage capacity due to low cost and small size [3]. Therefore, power-efficient and lightweight designs to prolong network lifetime without sacrificing the coverage degree are one of the fundamental concerns for wireless Dacomitinib sensor networks.In WSNs, unattended deployment usually causes asymmetric node density in the field. In some sub-areas of the field, the sensing areas of neighboring nodes might overlap with each other, which results in coverage redundancy.

This redundancy can be exploited to design energy-efficient coverage control protocols [4-10]. In a k-covered field, a node is said to be redundant if each point within its sensing area is already k-covered by other active nodes [5]. The main mechanism of the coverage control protocols is to turn off the redundant nodes, which are also called eligible nodes to sleep.

Figure 1 Injection peaks showing typical response generated from

Figure 1.Injection peaks showing typical response generated from nanomolar [Fe2+] in this work. A. 100 nM Fe2+; B. 100 nM Fe2+ with 1 mg C L-1 fulvic acid (FA); C. 10 nM Fe2+; D. 10 nM Fe2+ with 1 mg C L-1 FA. Inset: Typical Gaussian response curve generated from …2.?Experimental2.1. Reagents and SamplesAll chemicals (except H2SO4) were reagent grade. Oxalic acid dihydrate and ferrous ammonium sulfate hexahydrate were purchased from J.T. Baker Chemical Co. (Phillipsburg, NJ, USA). L-Ascorbic acid, glycine, and hydroxylamine hydrochloride were supplied by Fisher Scientific (Fair Lawn, NJ, USA). Hydrazine dihydrochloride and L-cysteine were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA). Sulfuric acid, veritas, redistilled was acquired from GFS Chemicals (Columbus, OH, USA).

Suwannee River humic and fulvic acid standards were purchased from the International Humic Substance Society (IHSS. St. Paul, MN, USA).Natural water samples collected from a mountain stream (Middle Crow Creek) and an unnamed alpine lake, both in SE Wyoming, USA, were acidified to pH 3, stored in the dark at room temperature, and analyzed within three weeks of collection. Middle Crow Creek is an undeveloped watershed at about 2,400 m elevation that originates near Pole Mountain in the Laramie Range in SE Wyoming, USA. This area is impacted by livestock grazing, nearby motorized traffic and human recreation (fishing and hiking). There is significant input of organic matter from overhanging trees and streamside bushes. Our research group has studied the site for several years.

The small alpine lake is located in the Snowy Range of SE Wyoming at ~ 3,300 m above sea level. At this elevation there is little organic input from trees and shrubs, but there are grasses and other vegetation along the lakeshore. Human impact on this lake is limited to nearby camping and hiking; there are no anglers, and cattle are excluded from the area.All solutions were prepared with 18.2 M�� Millipore reverse-osmosis, de-ionized (RO) water and H2SO4. All samples were acidified to pH 3 [50], which slows the oxidation of ferrous iron [32,51,52]. Iron standards, including those used in experiments wi
In recent years, research and development of biosensors has received a great deal of attention since their extensive application potential is highly recognized in areas such as medical diagnostics and the food industry [1-4].

Biosensors are normally composed of two main components – the sensing device and the sensing molecule, i.e. chemical AV-951 or biological recognition elements. As a functional hybrid system, the biggest challenge is to optimize this system to benefit from coupling of the unique features of the bio-recognition event with the sensitive signal recognition and amplification potential of a sensing device [5].