Using SOCT, full-thickness macular holes were diagnosed in 80

\n\nUsing SOCT, full-thickness macular holes were diagnosed in 80 eyes, pseudoholes in 15 eyes, and lamellar macular holes in 66 eyes. Using HRT, full-thickness macular holes were diagnosed in 81 eyes, and pseudoholes and lamellar macular holes (non-full-thickness macular holes) were diagnosed in 80 eyes. In 160/161 cases, the diagnosis with HRT 3 was correct. Compared with SOCT, HRT 3 has a specificity of 98.7% and a sensitivity

of 100% in differentiating full-thickness from non-full-thickness macular holes.\n\nThe HRT 3 macular module enables diagnosis of macular holes. Full-thickness macular holes could be differentiated from non-full-thickness macular holes; however, lamellar macular holes could not be differentiated from macular pseudoholes.”
“Benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma is a very rare benign cystic tumor; at present approximately 130 cases have been reported. It more frequently occurs in females (87%), expecially in the pelvic

area of the cul-de-sac, uterus and rectum; the pathogenesis has remained controversial. Abdominal pain is the most common symptom (75%). Ultrasound, Computerized Tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful, but the diagnosis is confirmed by histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. Benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma shows high recurrence after surgical resection, but it does Quizartinib not present a tendency to transform into malignancy. Surgery is the only effective treatment, and peritonectomy is recommended. A prolonged systematic followup of these patients, perhaps find more for all life, is required. Here we report two cases that underwent surgery for benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma. In the first case the lesion was a multicystic fluid mass of the large intestine, while in the second one a smaller peritoneal mass was reported. In both cases the pathological

result was a benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma. After surgery, we decided to continue with a prolonged systematic follow-up. Eur. J. Oncol., 15 (2), 119-123, 2010″
“Objective: This study aimed to examine the longitudinal association between decline in cognitive function and elder mistreatment (EM). Methods: Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP) is an epidemiologic study conducted in a geographically defined community (N = 6,159). We identified 143 CHAP participants who had longitudinal cognitive data and EM reported to social services agency. The primary predictor was cognitive function, which was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (Perceptual Speed), and both immediate and delayed recall of the East Boston Memory Test (Episodic Memory). An index of global cognitive function scores was derived by averaging z scores of all tests.

EIT may thus provide a promising, non-invasive technique for moni

EIT may thus provide a promising, non-invasive technique for monitoring the time-course of ALI in rodent models, and for testing novel pharmacological strategies to counter it.”
“Objective: The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the efficacy of hesperidin

(HES) in protecting against methotrexate (MTX)-induced intestinal damage using histopathological and immunohistochemical techniques. Materials and Methods: Seventy-eight male Wistar albino rats were divided into 4 groups that received (a) saline only (control group), n = 19; (b) HES only, n = 19; (c) MTX only, n = 19, and (d) MTX plus HES, n = Linsitinib 21. On the first day of the study, a single dose of MTX (20 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally to group 3 and 4 rats. The HES (200 mg/kg) was administered by gavage for 5 days. For the MTX plus HES group, HES (200 mg/kg) was selleck kinase inhibitor administered by gavage for 5 days

after MTX treatment. Rats were sacrificed on the 2nd, 4th and 6th day of the study. Tissue samples from the jejunum were taken for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. Results: On the 4th day, crypt injury in the MTX plus HES group (1.00 +/- 0.00) was less than that in the MTX group (2.00 +/- 0.89; p < 0.05). The small intestinal damage score was lower in the MTX plus HES group (6.33 +/- 0.82) as compared to the MTX group (8.00 +/- 2.37). Inducible nitric oxide synthase and interleukin-8 levels were lower in the MTX plus HES group (65 and 25%, respectively) as compared to the corresponding values of the MTX

group (80 and 52.5%, respectively). On the 6th day, the Ki-67 proliferation index in the MTX group (45%) was lower than that in the MTX plus STA-9090 research buy HES group (76.67%) and the control group (p < 0.05). The small intestinal damage score was high in the HES group on the 4th day due to increased cellular infiltration. On the 6th day, the Ki-67 proliferation index rose in parallel with the decrease in cellular infiltration and therefore histopathological scoring. The proliferation-enhancing effect of HES also appeared in healthy rats. Conclusion: HES seemed to have a protective effect against MTX-induced intestinal injury. (C) 2013 S.

27-0 67) CONCLUSIONS: The MicroRPM reliably measures MIP and MEP

27-0.67). CONCLUSIONS: The MicroRPM reliably measures MIP and MEP, but its MRPD, MRR, and tau measurements should be considered with caution.”
“While bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) autograft continues to be the “gold standard” and most popular graft choice for primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions, the use of allograft tissues in ACL reconstruction has steadily increased over the last 2 decades. Advantages of allograft include a lack of donor-site morbidity, unlimited available sizes, shorter operative

times, availability of larger grafts, smaller incisions, improved cosmesis, lower selleck chemical incidence of postoperative arthrofibrosis, faster immediate postoperative recovery, and less postoperative pain. Disadvantages include the potential for disease transmission and prolonged graft healing. Presented in this article are 2 techniques used at the authors’ institution for primary ACL reconstruction with allograft. With the proper indications, knowledge of graft preparation and handling, and technique, allograft tissues in ACL reconstructions can provide the surgeon with clinical results equal to those of autograft reconstructions.”
“A novel amphiphilic thiolated carboxymethyl chitosan was synthesized. It self-assembled into disulfide bond cross-linked nanoparticles in deionized water. The TEM showed that these nanoparticles had a core-shell

structure with an average diameter of 160nm. Dynamic light Entinostat does scattering showed that the nanoparticles were stable in water solution. The particle size changed with pH

ARS-1620 chemical structure values and GSH concentrations, and reached a maximum diameter at pH 7.0 and 20 mM GSH respectively, exhibiting an obvious pH/redox responsibility. Methotrexate was encapsulated in nanoparticles reaching encapsulation efficiency as much as 43.4%. Release profiles of methotrexate showed a release rate of 19 wt% in pH 7.4 buffer containing 10 mu M GSH, whereas as high as 93 wt% in pH 5.0 buffer containing 20 mM GSH, indicating that the nanoparticles may be used for tumor-specific drug release. The anticancer activity test in vitro showed that the inhibition rate of methotrexate-loaded nanoparticles against HeLa cells reached 90%. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved,”
“The red coloration of litchi fruit depends on the accumulation of anthocyanins. The anthocyanins level in litchi fruit varies widely among cultivars, developmental stages and environmental stimuli. Previous studies on various plant species demonstrate that anthocyanin biosynthesis is controlled at the transcriptional level. Here, we describe a litchi R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, LcMYB1, which demonstrates a similar sequence as other known anthocyanin regulators. The transcription levels of the LcMYB1 and anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were investigated in samples with different anthocyanin levels. The expression of LcMYB1 was strongly associated with tissue anthocyanin content.

The gas uptake behaviors of MOP-23 and MOF-601 to -603 are also p

The gas uptake behaviors of MOP-23 and MOF-601 to -603 are also presented as evidence that these structures have permanent porosity and rigid architectures.”
“Although sewage effluent application to land is a common approach to recycle water and provide nutrients to plants, bioactive pharmaceuticals contained in sewage may change soil quality by affecting soil

microbial communities. Establishing causal effects, however, is difficult, because trace levels of pharmaceuticals are confounded with other effluent constituents. Therefore, two originally similar soil microbial communities, one irrigated in situ with sewage effluent for 12 years and another nonirrigated, were exposed to high levels of acetaminophen, aspirin, carbamazepine, chlorpromazine, and tetracycline. The objectives of the current study were to determine the influence of high levels of pharmaceuticals on several soil microbial properties, GSK1120212 the effect that prolonged effluent irrigation with ambient levels of pharmaceuticals had on soil microbial function, and how this effect would change in response to pharmaceutical exposure. Several pharmaceuticals, at high exposure levels, imposed stress on the soil microbial community as judged by increased CO(2) respiration, decreased biomass carbon, and altered substrate utilization affinities. Prolonged effluent irrigation, which altered the genetic fingerprint

of the microbial community, also mitigated the response that exposure to pharmaceuticals had on the microbial community and enabled degradation of the antimicrobial salicylic acid after aspirin exposure. In conclusion, prolonged irrigation with sewage effluent containing pharmaceuticals at ambient levels influenced the microbial

community so that they were able to better cope with sudden exposure to high levels of pharmaceuticals. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2011;30:1086-1095. (C) 2011 SETAC”
“Remote monitoring of cardiac implantable electronic devices has been demonstrated to safely reduce frequency of hospital visits. Limited studies are available evaluating the economic impact. The aim of this article is to highlight the social impact and costs for the patients associated with hospital visits for routine device follow-up at the enrollment visit for the TARIFF study (NCT01075516).\n\nTARIFF is a prospective, cohort, observational study designed to compare the costs and impact on quality of life between clinic-based and remote care device follow-up strategies.\n\nTwo hundred nine patients (85.2 % males) were enrolled in the study; 153 patients (73.2 %) were retired, 36 (17.2 %) were active workers, 18 (8.6 %) were housewives, and 2 (1.0 %) were looking for a job. Among active workers, 63.9 % required time off from work to attend the hospital visit, while 67.0 % of all patients had to interrupt daily activities.

We report a case in which clinical experience together with rapid

We report a case in which clinical experience together with rapid genetic analysis, imaging with F-18-DOPA-PET/CT and laparoscopic surgery, were able to guide the correct clinical management of this condition.”
“Objective-To determine whether the degree of liver disease progression in chronic hepatitis C infection can be evaluated by arrival time parametric imaging using contrast-enhanced sonography with Sonazoid (perfluorobutane; GE Healthcare, Oslo, Norway).\n\nMethods-In this study, 60 patients with liver disease in chronic hepatitis C infection were examined and compared with 10 healthy volunteers who served as controls. A recommended dose of the sonographic contrast

DMH1 price agent Sonazoid was intravenously infused, and the S5 or S6 region of the liver and right kidney were observed concurrently while movies of the procedure were saved. Arrival time parametric images of liver parenchymal blood flow were created, with red pixels to indicate an arrival time of 0 to S seconds and yellow pixels to indicate an arrival time of 5 to 10 seconds. From the obtained images, the ratio of the red area to the

entire enhanced area of the liver Selleckchem AG-120 was calculated using image-processing software. Each participant was subsequently subjected to liver biopsy for liver fibrosis staging according to Metavir scores, and the determined fibrosis stage was compared with the ratio of red. The serum albumin level, platelet count, and prothrombin time were also compared with the ratio of red for each participant.\n\nResults The ratio of red increased significantly as liver fibrosis stage advanced (P < selleck products .01 for F1 versus F2; P <

.01 for Fl versus F3; P < .01 for Fl versus F4; and P < .01 for F2 versus F4). As the ratio of red increased, significant decreases were observed in the serum albumin level (r = -0.29; P = .027), platelet count (r = -0.46; P = .0003), and prothrombin time (r = 0.46; P = .0002).\n\nConclusions Arrival time parametric imaging using Sonazoid-enhanced sonography enables noninvasive evaluation of the degree of progression of fiver disease in chronic hepatitis C infection and is thus considered clinically useful.”
“A number of computational approaches have been proposed for the simulation of haemodynamics and vascular wall dynamics in complex vascular networks. Among them, 0D pulse wave propagation methods allow to efficiently model flow and pressure distributions and wall displacements throughout vascular networks at low computational costs. Although several techniques are documented in literature, the availability of open-source computational tools is still limited. We here present python Network Solver, a modular solver framework for 0D problems released under a BSD license as part of the archToolkit . As an application, we describe patient-specific models of the systemic circulation and detailed upper extremity for use in the prediction of maturation after surgical creation of vascular access for haemodialysis.

(J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94: 4309-4314, 2009)”
“This study a

(J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94: 4309-4314, 2009)”
“This study aims to investigate the serum IL-21 levels in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and its relations with clinical and laboratory features. Fifty-seven patients

with SLE and 30 healthy volunteers were recruited in the current study. Serum IL-21 levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical analyses were performed by SPSS 10.01. Results showed that IL-21 levels were significantly decreased in the serum of patients with SLE compared with controls (P = 0.026). There was no significant difference regarding serum IL-21 level between SLE patients with nephritis and those without nephritis (P = 0.066); no significant difference was found between less active SLE and more active SLE (P = 0.588). The presence of anemia was associated JQ1 molecular weight with low serum IL-21 levels (P = 0.030) in

SLE patients. In summary, Nirogacestat concentration decreased serum level of IL-21 and its association with anemia indicate a possible role of IL-21 in human SLE. However, further studies are needed to confirm this preliminary results.”
“Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of brachytherapy after ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC) for retinoblastoma.\n\nMethods and Materials: This was a single-arm, retrospective study of 15 eyes in 15 patients treated with OAC followed by brachytherapy at (blinded institution) between May 1, 2006, and December 31, 2012, with a median 19 months’ follow-up from plaque insertion. Outcome measurements included patient and ocular survival, visual function, and retinal toxicity measured by electroretinogram (ERG).\n\nResults: Brachytherapy was used as adjuvant treatment in 2 eyes and as salvage therapy in 13 eyes of which 12 had localized vitreous seeding. No patients developed metastasis or died of retinoblastoma. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of ocular survival was 79.4% (95% confidence interval 48.7%-92.8%) at 18

months. Three eyes were enucleated, and an additional 6 eyes developed out-of-target volume recurrences, which were controlled with additional treatments. Patients with an ocular complication had a mean interval between last OAC and plaque of 2.5 months (SD 2.3 months), which was statistically less (P=.045) than patients without ocular complication who had a mean interval between last OAC and plaque of 6.5 months (SD 4.4 months). ERG responses from pre-versus postplaque were unchanged or improved in more than half the eyes.\n\nConclusions: Brachytherapy following OAC is effective, even in the presence of vitreous seeding; the majority of eyes maintained stable or improved retinal function following treatment, as assessed by ERG. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc.”
“Cattle genetically selected for twin ovulations and births (Twinner) exhibit increased ovarian follicular development, increased ovulation rate, and greater blood and follicular fluid IGF-1 concentrations compared with contemporary cattle not selected for twins (Control).

“The aim of this research was the selection of spermatozoa

“The aim of this research was the selection of spermatozoa parameters related to boar fertility performance and their combination into an in vitro index. A first set (data set 1) of 36 Pietrain boars with 138 ejaculates from two seasons with 5083 see more single-sire inseminations from 34 farms was used to determine correlations between in vitro sperm quality parameters and fertility performance. 2970 ejaculates representing a second set (data set 2) served calculation of seasonal and age effects on semen quality. Morphological spermatozoa parameters were estimated manually with a phase contrast microscope on the day of semen collection, whereas mitochondrial activity and viability were analyzed by double-staining with rhodamine123/propidium

iodide on day 2 of semen storage using flow cytometry. Sperm motility was tested on day 7 by thermoresistance (TRT) after 30 min (TRT1) and 300 min (TRT2) incubation at 38 degrees C using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA).\n\nCorrelations revealed four independent sperm quality parameters qualifying as relevant predictors of boar fertility: (i) percentage of spermatozoa with proximal cytoplasmic droplets, (ii) percentage of spermatozoa with active mitochondria, (iii) beat cross frequency

of progressively motile spermatozoa in TRT1, and (iv) oscillation measure of the actual path of progressively motile spermatozoa in TRT2. There were no significant effects of sperm concentration, ejaculate volume, and total number of sperm cells find more per ejaculate on litter size (LS) and on pregnancy rate (PR). Our findings suggest the usefulness of sperm quality parameters based on adjusted range of methods and enable the construction of an in FK228 vitro index as a means to predicting boar fertility. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Introduction Various functional residual capacity (FRC) repeatability criteria have

been proposed for lung clearance index (LCI) measurement by multiple breath washout (MBW). Adult guidelines recommend three technically acceptable tests with FRC values within 10%, whilst preschool guidelines recommend two such tests. Feasibility of and need for recommendations in children is unclear. Methods Retrospective analysis of MBW data was undertaken in healthy control (n=90) and cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects (n=108) encompassing infancy, pre-school and school age ranges. Feasibility of FRC repeatability recommendations was investigated in those with three technically acceptable tests. Validity of mean LCI from the first two tests alone (vs. all three) was investigated by comparing mean data and sensitivity to detect abnormal peripheral airway function in CF. Results LCI coefficient of variation (CoV) was related to FRC CoV (P<0.001) and disease category (P=0.002). Application of adult repeatability criteria decreased LCI CoV (4.7 vs. 8.5%, P<0.001), but had poor feasibility beyond infancy (62/150, 41%). Preschool recommendations increased feasibility but only to 70% overall.

87), soluble CP (R-2 = 0 92), RUP (R-2 = 0 97), and intestinal di

87), soluble CP (R-2 = 0.92), RUP (R-2 = 0.97), and intestinal digestibility of RUP (R-2 = 0.71). In conclusion, molecular spectroscopy can be used to rapidly characterize feed protein molecular structures and predict their nutritive value.”
“Purpose: To investigate the prevalence of intraocular infections after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Methods: The study design was a single institutional retrospective

noncomparative cohort of 135 consecutive patients in 2006 and 2007 who underwent allo-SCT for hematological malignancy. The primary outcome was the development of intraocular infections after allo-SCT and secondary outcome consisted of development of other ocular disorders during follow-up. Results: The most frequent ocular sequel to allo-SCT included ocular graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), which developed in 37/135 patients MX69 supplier (27%). Intraocular infection occurred in 1 of 135 patients (0.7%). This patient developed infectious chorioretinitis together with osteomyelitis, endocarditis, and brain abscess

with fungus Scedosporium and was successfully treated with a combination Selleck Bafilomycin A1 of voriconazole, amphotericine B, and surgical interventions. Viral and/or bacterial intraocular infections were not observed at all. Conclusions: Intraocular infections after allo-SCT are currently uncommon due to systematic use of preemptive treatment regimens, frequent controls, and early treatment of systemic infections.”
“Efficient modes of extracorporeal blood purification

are available today for apheresis treatment of progessive atherosclerosis, autoimmune disease, or for improving hemorheology. Advanced technology and sophisticated care render apheresis treatment selective, safe and tolerable. Our Dinaciclib concentration task is to constantly update indications for apheresis based on best evidence available and good clinical practice, as well as, to determine how apheresis therapy can be made available to those in need or with otherwise refractory disease.\n\nPresenting examples of lipid apheresis, rheopheresis, or immunoadsorption for treatment of hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipoproteinemia (a), acute hearing loss, refractory or exacerbating multiple sclerosis, we highlight real world obstacles for implementation of treatment, resulting in still too many patients with proven or recommended indication left untreated. Based on the experience of the largest apheresis center in Germany, with more than 3,300 treatments per year, we depict the necessary structure for identification of patients, defining indication, referral, implementation of therapy, and reimbursement. Apheresis is unfamiliar to most patients and many practitioners or consultants.

8%) ALDHhigh cells formed tumors from as few as 500 cells in 24/

8%). ALDHhigh cells formed tumors from as few as 500 cells in 24/45 implantations, whereas only 3/37 implantations of ALDH(low) cells formed selleck screening library tumors.\n\nConclusions. ALDH(high) cells comprise a subpopulation cells in HNSCCs that are tumorigenic and capable of producing tumors at very low numbers. This finding indicates that ALDH activity on its own is a highly selective

marker for CSCs in HNSCC. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 32: 1195-1201, 2010″
“Monostability and multistability are proven to be two important topics in synthesis biology and system biology. In this paper, both monostability and multistability are analyzed in a unified framework by applying control theory and mathematical tools. The genetic regulatory networks

(GRNs) with multiple time-varying delays and different types of regulation functions are considered. By putting forward a general sector-like regulation function and utilizing up-to-date Autophagy inhibitor techniques, a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional is introduced for achieving delay dependence to ensure less conservatism. A new condition is then proposed for the general stability of a GRN in the form of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) that are dependent on the upper and lower bounds of the delays. Our general stability conditions are applicable to several frequently used regulation functions. It is shown that the existing results for monostability of GRNs are special cases of our main results. Five examples are employed to illustrate the applicability and usefulness of the developed theoretical results. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A novel method for surface modification of UV-cured epoxy network was described. Photoinitiated cationic copolymerization of a bisepoxide, namely 3,4-epoxy cyclohexylmethyl 3,4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate (EEC) with epibromohydrine (EBH) by using a cationic photoinitiator, [4-(2-methylpropyl)phenyl]4-methylphenyl-iodonium hexafluorophosphate, in propylene

carbonate solution was studied. The real-time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic, gel content determination and thermal characterization studies revealed that both EEC and EBH monomers take part in the polymerization and epoxy network possessing bromomethyl functional groups was obtained. The bromine functions of the cured product formed on the glass surface were converted to azide functionalities with sodium azide. Independently prepared alkyne functional poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was subsequently anchored to azide-modified epoxy surface by a “click” reaction. Surface modification of the network through incorporation of hydrophilic PEG chain was evidenced by contact angle measurements. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 48: 2862-2868, 2010″
“Introduction Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is still a major threat to polytrauma patients, since sepsis-related organ failure is the most common cause of late mortality in these patients.

Yet little is known about the biology of human PRPs because of an

Yet little is known about the biology of human PRPs because of an apparent inability to find more culture and expand them in large numbers. This Study was designed to establish an approach that allows direct comparisons between the biology of fetal and adult human PRPs, as a means to address potential differences in intrinsic myelin-production capabilities.\n\nMethods: We used the neurosphere culture system, under low plating density, to isolate, culture, and compare the properties of fetal and adult human PRPs.\n\nResults: PDGF stimulated fetal

human PRPs to generate neurospheres that differentiated primarily into oligodendrocytes, which acquired myelin basic protein expression, as well as neurons and a small number of astrocytes. Together with PDGF, fibroblast growth factor 2 promoted fetal human PRP expansion. In contrast, adult human PRPs isolated from the corpus callosum required twice the culture period to generate neurospheres, which contained oligodendrocytes,

as well as astrocytes, but not neurons. Strikingly, fibroblast growth factor 2 did nor promote adult human PRP PD0332991 cost self-renewal.\n\nInterpretation: Differences in the intrinsic proliferation, phenotype, and self-renewal properties of fetal and adult human PRPs Suggest they are distinct populations, which may result in distinct myelin-production capabilities.”
“Background A wide variety of both surgical and nonsurgical therapies selleck chemicals llc is currently available for patients with skin cancer. Objectives This part of the EPIDERM (European Prevention Initiative for Dermatological Malignancies) project is aimed at the evaluation of the treatment preferences for skin cancer in eight countries of the European Union. Methods A multicentre hospital-based casecontrol study was carried out at dermatology departments in Finland, Germany, Greece, Italy, Malta, Poland, Scotland and Spain. Patients with skin cancer (basal cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis, squamous

cell carcinoma, cutaneous malignant melanoma and Bowen disease) were consecutively enrolled between July 2008 and July 2010. Information on the study variables (sex, age, country, tumour type, anatomical location and treatment) was obtained from questionnaires designed by the EPIDERM project. Results In total, 1708 patients with skin cancer were included. Surgery was the first treatment option in 76.5% of the patients (P = 0.001). Actinic keratosis was the only tumour type in which nonsurgical treatment was more frequent than surgery (91.4%). Tumours on the head were less likely to be surgically excised than those at other locations (odds ratio 0.25, P = 0.001). Simple excision or curettage was the most common surgical procedure (65.4%), followed by graft and flaps (22.4%). Cryotherapy was the most common nonsurgical option (52.4%), followed by imiquimod (18.0%), photodynamic therapy (PDT; 12.0%), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; 5.7%), and diclofenac with hyaluronic acid (4.