Imaging of coronary artery stenosis using the liposomal blood poo

Imaging of coronary artery stenosis using the liposomal blood pool contrast agent has been demonstrated in a sheep model. Complete selleck Gemcitabine mapping of the hepatic vasculature, including the arterial, venous, and portal circulation, has been demonstrated in

small and large animal models.31 32 Delayed-phase imaging (72 to 120 hours) has been used to characterize tumor vascular permeability.33 Preliminary studies in mice have demonstrated that the tumor uptake of liposomal contrast agents can facilitate differentiation of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical malignant and benign lung nodules. Stratification of breast tumors has allowed us to selleck inhibitor identify those tumors that are treatable by PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin and those that are not likely to respond.33 34 For the first time ever, the existence of extratumoral blood vessels that exhibit vascular Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical permeability usually only attributed to intratumoral neovasculature has been demonstrated.32 Additionally, variants of this agent that target macrophages and highlight atherosclerotic plaques have also been recently demonstrated. The remainder of this paper, therefore, focuses on these capabilities of the liposomal blood pool agent. The processes used for the production of this agent Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical are exhaustively documented in previous

publications and are not reproduced here.31–33 We focus instead on the highlights of the imaging studies. Figure 1. Illustration of a liposomal blood Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical pool contrast agent. Whole-Body Vascular Imaging The pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of liposomal contrast agents have been studied in mice.31 32 Uniform and stable blood attenuation is obtained immediately after systemic administration of the liposomal contrast agent. The blood pool attenuation remains relatively uniform for several hours post administration, with attenuation decay gradually occurring over a period of several days. CT angiography studies performed in small and large animals demonstrated excellent visualization of the entire blood circulatory system using a single dose of liposomal contrast agent (Figure 2). Figure 2. 3D volume-rendered images demonstrating whole-body vasculature Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in

a pig (A) and sheep (B) model obtained after administration of liposomal blood pool contrast agent. Cardiovascular Imaging in Large Animals Unlike humans, cardiovascular CT imaging in small animals remains a major challenge.35 Due to higher heart rates (300 to 600 beats per minute) and respiration Entinostat rates (80 to 120 per minute) in rodents, cardiorespiratory-gated scans typically take 8 to 10 minutes per cardiac phase cycle (~120 minutes for 12 cardiac phases). Stable and uniform opacification is required for this entire period, before gated imaging is feasible. The liposomal agent has enabled such studies. The uniform opacification of the cardiac chambers also facilitates determination of cardiac function parameters, thus enabling facile cardiac phenotyping in rodent models.

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy Extracorporeal shock wave thera

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) was introduced as therapy modality by Butz and Teichert in 1996. Hauck and colleagues Pazopanib 444731-52-6 showed in a following study that ESWT led to a significant decrease in penile curvature in patients with PD. A decrease in pain, subjective improvement, and improvement in the quality of sexual intercourse could not be observed in comparison with the case-control group.40 The same group Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of authors reported in a follow-up study that ESWT does not appear to be significantly effective for decreasing penile curvature and plaque size or improving

sexual function in PD patients despite improvements in individuals. However, it was shown that penile pain somehow resolved earlier than during the natural course of the disease.41 Current data have shown that ESWT is a noninvasive, well-tolerated therapy for PD. However, it cannot be recommended as a standard procedure Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical due to the lack of clear evidence. Literature indicates that ESWT

has beneficial effects on painful erections and on sexual function, but it seems to have no significant effect on penile plaque size or penile curvature.41 Most of the previous Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical studies dealing with ESWT had methodological problems due to the lack of control groups. Recently, the first prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial for the evaluation of ESWT as a treatment option for PD was published. Palmieri and associates randomly

assigned 100 patients to either ESWT (n = 50) or to the placebo Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical group (n = 50).42 The study evaluated IIEF-5, pain during erection (VAS 0–10), plaque size (cm2), penile curvature (measured in degrees), and quality of life (QoL) at baseline, 12-week, and 24-week follow-up. After 12 weeks, mean VAS score, mean IIEF-5 score, and mean QoL score ameliorated significantly in patients receiving ESWT. Mean plaque size and mean curvature degree were unchanged in the ESWT group, whereas Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical a slight increase was reported in the placebo group (P value not significant vs baseline). After 24 weeks, mean IIEF-5 score and mean QoL score were stable in the ESWT group, whereas mean VAS score was significantly lower when compared with baseline in both groups. Interestingly, after 24 weeks, mean plaque size Brefeldin_A and mean curvature degree were significantly higher in the placebo group when compared with both baseline and ESWT values. These results may PD173955? suggest that ESWT has a potential protective effect on disease progression. The authors concluded that ESWT represents a valuable therapy modality for PD patients, leads to pain resolution, and ameliorates erectile function and QoL.42 The main limitations of the study design were that the QoL questionnaire was not validated, ED was not etiologically characterized, and inclusion criteria were restricted. Recently, de Berardinis and colleagues published their data on ESWT.

Outcome measures will necessarily extend beyond symptomatology to

Outcome measures will necessarily extend beyond symptomatology to include function, disability, morbidity, mortality, health care and other resource use, family burden, institutionalization, and quality of life. Development

of preventive interventions Given the breadth and depth of the knowledge base regarding depression in late life, a clear opportunity is now presented to mount an initiative directed toward prevention. Prevention has many aspects. An intervention may be based on models of pathophysiology or etiology to prevent onset of the illness. Vascular depression presents one such opportunity, as does the research on bereavement77-79 and a variety of comorbidities, such as vision or hearing Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical loss and other illnesses. In the context of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical treatment, preventive interventions may well be directed at relapse, recurrence, or excessive levels of functional disability. Safety and consumer protection As part of a public health

mission, we must also attend to issues of safety and consumer protection. For example, the widespread use of over-the-counter, unregulated treatments needs to be carefully examined for possible benefit and for potential harm. Use of complementary and alternative approaches is very high and growing.80,81 Even in patients volunteering for participation in clinical drug trials, use of herbal medications is substantial; in a series Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of 150 such subjects,82 56% reported having Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical used herbs in the last month. It is therefore incumbent upon us to evaluate these treatments including natural products such as St John’s Wort or kava, psychophysiologic approaches such as eye movement desensitization reprocessing (EMDR), and somatic approaches such as acupuncture, if for no other reason than that our patients are using these in large, uncontrolled, natural experiments. Dissemination A final priority Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical must be dissemination. Our patients are not helped by treatments that are hepatocellular carcinoma available in only in scientific journals. A recent example highlights the problem. Lehman and Steinwachs83

report that fewer than half the patients with schizophrenia in the United States received a level of care that was consistent Drug_discovery with the current state of the art. This is an important finding that cannot be ignored. As a field we must take on the challenge of translating our research into practice and placing the most powerful clinical tools in the hands of patients, their families, and the clinicians that take care of them. The Geriatric Psychiatry Alliance initiatives on depression84 represent an important and potentially valuable approach to this problem. Conclusions There has been significant progress in our selleck chemical Brefeldin A understanding of the nature, clinical course, and treatment of depression in late life. Important findings have emerged in a number of areas directly affecting clinical care and have, in turn, stimulated further research.

In emerging technologies, the particles have improved functionali

In emerging technologies, the particles have improved functionalities that include diagnosis, targeting, and drug delivery kinase inhibitor Paclitaxel functions and enhance transport and uptake characteristics. The focus of this paper will be in these

emerging technologies rather than the current status of the market drugs. The credibility of the techniques (topics) being presented here is established through either prior extensive testing, preliminary results from proof-of-concept tests, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical or derived from analogous successes for what are believed to be realistic projected applications. Presented here therefore will be discussions relative to (a) crystal size and morphology control, via bottom-up processing, for direct use with traditional delivery methods, (b) simultaneous targeting/delivery techniques incorporating

novel chaperones obtained from 17-DMAG functionalized surfactant encapsulants and T-cells, and (c) controlled release using Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical nanotechnology innovations involving single and multiple drug interventions and tissue therapies (e.g., angiogenesis, wound healing, and artificial organs for autoimmune diseases). In these cases, attempts are made Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to identify the underlying fundamental physicochemical principles/mechanisms associated such that projected extensions are feasible, and scaleup where necessary can be accomplished reliably. 2. Techniques/Applications In the recent article by G. Liversidge [10], as mentioned previously, a number of specific pharmaceutical companies and associated drugs are identified that combine control-release and nanotechnologies. This combination is identified as a key Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical market driver for this industry.

Based upon documented recent advances and successful applications, various potential opportunities are outlined. Powerful extensions to many of the concepts and methods mentioned there are being developed and some are currently being implemented throughout the industry. For example, the concept of minitablets has a profound impact on many release formulations, (i) delayed-, (ii) extended-, and (iii) pulsitile-release systems. An objective of ours via this paper is to identify the importance and effectiveness Drug_discovery of nanotechnological Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical innovations on the enhancement of transport processes that improve therapeutic protocols. Of the techniques being discussed, the bottom-up method for nanocrystal formation will be used as an example because it provides the basis for our ability to carefully engineer the nanoparticles for the drug delivery protocols. These entities are an essential component for the clinical implementation of all the transport enhanced techniques in use and/or proposed. Whenever available, the results from the various levels of experimental programs executed are presented and discussed, conclusions drawn, and recommendations for future efforts set forth. Presented in Table 1 below is an outline of the current and emerging methods and nanotechnology applications in drug delivery platforms.

0 mg/dL; (5) severe liver dysfunction with serum asparatate amino

0 mg/dL; (5) severe liver dysfunction with serum asparatate aminotransferase (AST) or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) above 100IU/L; (6) severe renal dysfunction with serum Cr level above 3.0 mg/dL; (7) hyperkalemia; (8) continuous administration of ARB, ACE inhibitor, or pioglitazone; (9) other conditions choose size deemed inappropriate for the purposes of this study by the investigators. Seven patients who met these criteria were enrolled. FDG-PET findings of all patients were supportive of AD. Of these seven patients, one

experienced digestive tract hemorrhage during the follow-up kinase inhibitor Dovitinib studies and two refused to continue to participate. Finally four AD Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical patients, two men and two women, aged from 70 to 77 years, finished the present longitudinal

study protocol. At each FDG-PET study, mini-mental state examination (MMSE) was administered Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and BP was measured. This study was approved by the institutional review board of Saitama Medical University International Medical Center and Saitama Medical University Hospital, and all subjects gave written informed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical consent to participate. Study protocol The subjects underwent three FDG-PET studies at intervals of 12 weeks. Antihypertensive treatment except for telmisartan was started immediately after the first FDG-PET study and continued for 24 weeks. Then 40–80 mg of telmisartan was added immediately after the second FDG-PET study and continued for 12 weeks (Fig. 1). Figure Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 1 Study protocol. Subjects underwent FDG-PET at three points: the first at entry into this study, the second and

third at 12 and 24 weeks after the 1st study, respectively. Telmisartan therapy was started immediately after the second study. FDG-PET FDG-PET was performed in the Department of Nuclear Medicine of Saitama Medical University International Medical Center. Before FDG-PET was performed, all subjects had an Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical intravenous line established. Each subject received an intravenous injection of 185 MBq of FDG while lying in the supine position with eyes closed in a dimly lit, quiet room and was kept in the same resting state for at least 20 minutes. Fifty minutes after the injection of FDG, brain PET was performed using PET/Computed Tomography (CT) equipment with high spatial resolution (Biograph 6 Hi-Rez; Siemens Medical Systems, Inc.:Suite, Washington, AV-951 D.C., United States). The combination of Fourier rebinning and the ordered subsets expectation-maximization at iteration number 4 and subset 16, and Gaussian filter at 6-mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) was used for PET image reconstruction. Attenuation correction was performed using CT data. Image preprocessing All FDG-PET images were spatially normalized using statistical parametric mapping 2 (SPM2;

Given the promising data, a larger study to reproduce and confirm

Given the promising data, a larger study to reproduce and confirm the results for everyone and each of the pilot studies would be desirable.
More than 7000 languages currently exist in this world, and 43% of them are based on subject–object–verb (SOV) word order, including Japanese (Greenberg 1966; Lewis 2009). For example, the English sentence “Taro (S) read (V) a book (O)” is translated in Japanese as “Taro-ga (S) Hon-o (O) Yonda (V)” [Taro (S) a book (O) read (V)]. A sentence Sorafenib structure in SVO word order, like in English, can be determined at an earlier stage in the sentence because the head (verb) comes second in the order. By contrast, a sentence Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical structure in the SOV word order, as in Japanese,

cannot be recognized the same way because the head (verb) is not stated until the end of the sentence. These variations in language typology have been Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical explored in psycholinguistic and cognitive processing models. Kamide (2006) and Yokoyama et al. (2012a) proposed a model in which Japanese sentences are incrementally processed before the head is inputted. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Japanese has ga as the nominative marker, o as the accusative marker, and ni as the dative marker. Muraoka (2006) and Yasunaga et al. (2010) stated that the information contained in a case particle (e.g., ni or o) affects the prediction or anticipation of elements that will appear next. Therefore, the information contained in case particles

plays a key role in the incremental process Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of interpreting the sentence before the verb appears. This difference between SOV languages and SVO

languages is explored in a recent review of neuroimaging research (Hashimoto et al. 2012). However, only a few studies have investigated the processing of case particles in the brain. Inui et al. (2007) examined the characteristics of case particle processing by showing click this participants case particles and non-case particles without any other sentence information Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (e.g., “X ga” (particle) or “X nu” (non-particle)) and asking them to judge whether it was a case particle or not. After comparing these results with those from a phonological task in which participants were required to judge whether the sound of o was included in a single Japanese character (hiragana) by using GSK-3 a block design, Inui et al. concluded that the left IFG is the region responsible for case particle processing in Japanese. Furthermore, Ogawa et al. (2007) and Ikuta et al. (2006) investigated the temporal dynamics of brain activity during sentence comprehension by analyzing stimulation when simple Japanese components are sequentially presented. Both studies reported left IFG activation during the stage of particle (or noun + particle) presentation. These results indicate that case particle processing is strongly associated with the left IFG. However, research on the neural representation of individual case particles is lacking.

141,142 Furthermore, doses over 100 mg/day may be indicated in pa

141,142 Furthermore, doses over 100 mg/day may be indicated in patients with persistent heroin abuse or with comorbid conditions such as HIV

infection, since some concomitant medications for AIDS increase metabolism of methadone.143,144 Tapering doses of methadone can be used in ambulatory detoxification, but the protracted withdrawal syndrome associated with methadone cessation contributes to a high rate of recidivism to opiate abuse.145,146 Methadone is therefore most often used in maintenance therapy and not for acute withdrawal or detoxification. Partial agonists act like agonists, but do not stimulate the receptor to the same degree. In combining both a blocking and substitution Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical approach, buprenorphine, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical a partial agonist at the µ-opioid receptor, suppresses withdrawal symptoms and produces some subjective reinforcing properties at low doses. Initial clinical trials of buprenorphine demonstrated efficacy in the outpatient setting. At 8 mg, the sublingual buprenorphine (in liquid formulation) Y27632 treatment group demonstrated better study retention and decreased opiate use than active sellckchem placebo or lmg buprenorphine.147,148 At higher doses buprenorphine acts as an

antagonist, and blocks the reinforcing properties of the agonist, resulting in lowered risk of abuse liability and potential for abuse of the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical drug.149 Buprenorphine is available alone or in a 4:1 combination sublingual tablet with naloxone (Suboxone).150 A multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial comparing buprenorphine tablet, Suboxone tablet, and placebo in opiate-dependent patients found that both buprenorphine

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical alone and Suboxone reduced opiate use in the first month of the study compared with placebo.151 Suboxone also appears to decrease Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the potential for abuse or diversion compared with methadone.152 Injection of Suboxone could also precipitate opioid withdrawal. Opioid antagonists Naltrexone is an opioid antagonist that binds to receptors, but Instead of activating the receptors, it blocks them, effectively removing the opiate user’s ability to get high.153,154 Human laboratory studies of naltrexone have demonstrated the efficacy of naltrexone In blocking the effects of acute opioid use Entinostat In human volunteers who have been withdrawn from opioids.154,155 In clinical trials, high attrition rates and unbllndlng by study patients who guess their treatment regimen have limited the utility of naltrexone maintenance treatment trials,156,157 though a subgroup analysis In a large controlled trial Indicated potential efficacy In highly motivated patients and In those already in drug-free counseling.157 Naltrexone has relatively few side effects, but liver function should be monitored as per labeling guidelines.


In Arry-380 price order to remove the artifact, we assumed that the artifact would not significantly change between non-expressing tissue and expressing tissue. The distance between the ferrule and the electrodes was fixed during construction (Figures 1J,K), and assuming the light-scattering properties of cortical and hippocampal tissue are similar, photo-induced artifacts would largely be the same within the two regions. Furthermore, electrical coupling between the ribbon cable and the LED stimulation input signal would not be expected to differ between the cortex

and hippocampus. Thus, to remove the artifact signal offline, we subtracted the mean artifact recorded in the cortex – where there was no ChR2 expression – from the LFP recording in the hippocampus (Figure ​Figure8B8B). As the neurophysiologic response was much larger amplitude than the artifact, little appreciable change in spectrographic power was noted (Figure ​Figure8B8B, bottom). While the artifacts in the LFP were readily identifiable from the underlying neurophysiologic signal, the single-unit responses proved difficult to resolve. While common median referencing was employed to attempt to improve the signal to noise ratio of the action potentials (Rolston et al., 2009a),

it remained difficult to distinguish true single-units from artifacts. This is demonstrated in (Figures 8C–F), wherein a unit believed to be real, and a unit believed to be an artifactual response, are presented. The first detected unit (Figures 8C,D) had a basal firing rate preceding the stimulus

that increased during the stimulation epoch in successive trials. The second detected unit (Figures 8E,F) also increased its firing rate during the stimulus, and appeared to be largely locked to stimulus onset. However, the latter unit failed to be detected outside of the stimulation epoch, and despite the favorable appearance of its waveform, appeared to have been consequent Drug_discovery to high-pass filtering of the stimulation artifact on this electrode. Without an accompanying intracellular waveform, or a tetrode-based identification scheme, it remains very difficult to clearly define a unit in this fashion. This is particularly a problem if the unit only appears during stimulation, and is locked to the stimulation frequency. CLOSED-LOOP STIMULATION We used NeuroRighter for closed-loop stimulation of MS in which the hippocampal theta-rhythm was used as a control signal to trigger the stimulation of the MS. The control system was implemented using a dynamic link library (DLL) based on the NeuroRighter application programming interface (API; Newman et al., 2013). The API contains a set of tools for interacting with NeuroRighter’s input and output streams.

1986) This variability may depend on differential levels of expo

1986). This variability may depend on differential levels of exposure to chronic dopaminergic therapy that might normalize the receptor number and/or sensitivity (i.e., patients with advanced PD would have been more exposed to chronic dopaminergic therapy when compared with patients with intermediate PD stages) (Alexander et al. 1993). However, it is also possible that molecular mechanisms independent

from drug therapy intervene Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to reduce the D2 receptor number and/or sensitivity over time. There is indeed evidence that the number and/or sensitivity of D2 receptors decreases in Parkinsonian monkeys with chronic nigrostriatal lesion even if they did not receive dopaminergic therapy (Decamp et al. 1999). Nonetheless, differences in treatment duration in our PD patients may have played a role in determining Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the sensitivity of D2 receptors and thus the heterogeneity of their brain responses to apomorphine. It is also noteworthy that apomorphine decreased activation of the SFG, a specific PFC region linked to stimulus manipulation during working memory (du Boisgueheneuc Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical et al. 2006). SFG is linked to basal-ganglia circuits involved in filtering irrelevant information during working memory (Moustafa et al. 2008; Baier et al. 2010); hence, apomorphine might indirectly alter the SFG function via dopaminergic receptors in the striatum. Our finding that DAT striatal levels

modulated BOLD responses to apomorphine in SFG during all working-memory loads support this hypothesis. Alternatively, apomorphine might influence dopaminergic receptors Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical on cortical neurons within the SFG itself. This possibility is supported by previous research in behaving monkeys showing that excessive levels of D1 receptor stimulation reduce delay-related firing of PFC neurons and erode the tuning of their responses during working memory (Vijayraghavan et al. 2007). In line with a recent staging model

of executive dysfunctions and mental fatigue in PD (de la Fuente-Fernandez 2012), it is also possible that apomorphine stimulation “overdosed” Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the direct VTA-PFC dopaminergic pathways via D4 receptors, a D2 receptor family expressed in the neocortex and implicated in the pathophysiology of a range of neuropsychiatric disorders (Oak et al. 2000; Wang et al. 2002). Two other PFC areas (i.e., the GSK-3 inferior frontal gyrus, IFG, and the dACC) showed a significant modulation by the striatal DAT levels and apomorphine therapy. The IFG has been consistently associated with response inhibition, a key neuropsychological function during working-memory tasks that require response inhibition (Aron and Poldrack 2005, 2006; Aron 2011). In contrast, the dACC has been linked to error and conflict monitoring, two other fundamental processes to execute a wide range of cognitive paradigms (van Veen and Carter 2002; Hester et al.

Different from [23], Shi et al [8] exploits the distinct RSS var

Different from [23], Shi et al. [8] exploits the distinct RSS variation behaviors between an on-body and an off-body communication channel to distinguish legitimate nodes from false ones. Nevertheless, Shi et al. [8] is not suitable for the crowded scenario, and it assumes that attackers’ directional antenna cannot be directed towards the user. The authors of [24] propose a device paring scheme using different RSS to perform proximity detection.Proximity-based authentication: Authentication schemes can be based on proximity detection. In many circumstances, the adversary cannot come close to the user’s devices or cannot do so without being detected. This idea originates from [25]. Under the inspiration of [25,26] utilizes radio frequency (RF) and ultrasound to determine a device’s proximity for controlling IMDs’ access. Normally, it needs specialized hardware for high accuracy. In [27], RF distance bounding that fully uses the wireless channel is first designed, but multi-radio capabilities and additional hardware are needed. Some channel-based authentication schemes, such as [8,21,22,24], are also based on proximity. Obviously, the adversary cannot get close to the user without being detected in BAN. Additionally, the first lightweight BAN authentication scheme [8] is an example.Motivat
Video-based methods have recently been introduced for a variety of applications in structural health monitoring (SHM). Patsias and Staszewski [1] analyzed digital videos for edge detection and to approximate the mode shape of a cantilever in a laboratory experiment. By applying a wavelet transform to the mode shape they were able to detect the location of damage which was introduced by cutting a groove with increasing depth into the cross-section. Lee et al. [2] devised a real-time method to measure in-plane displacements and rotations using feature tracking techniques based on a Lagrangian approach, and applied it to a target bridge. Zaurin and Catbas [3�C7] developed a method using digital video data to locate and measure applied loads on a bridge and devised an index called unit influence line (UIL) as a measure of the health of bridges. Elgamal et al. [8] developed a framework to integrate different data types including computer vision data to create a ��decision-support system�� for bridges and other lifelines. In a SHM review on wind turbines by Ciang et al. [9], it is noted that digital image correlation (DIC) techniques can also be used for these structures, but the 3-D version of these methods should be investigated in more depth if they are to be applied. Song et al. [10] modified the Hough Transform to track numerous markers on a beam with a computationally efficient algorithm and fitted a spline curve to the tracked shape in order to detect the location of the damage.To conclude, the use of digital videos for SHM is only in the beginning stage.