Imaging of coronary artery stenosis using the liposomal blood pool contrast agent has been demonstrated in a sheep model. Complete selleck Gemcitabine mapping of the hepatic vasculature, including the arterial, venous, and portal circulation, has been demonstrated in
small and large animal models.31 32 Delayed-phase imaging (72 to 120 hours) has been used to characterize tumor vascular permeability.33 Preliminary studies in mice have demonstrated that the tumor uptake of liposomal contrast agents can facilitate differentiation of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical malignant and benign lung nodules. Stratification of breast tumors has allowed us to selleck inhibitor identify those tumors that are treatable by PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin and those that are not likely to respond.33 34 For the first time ever, the existence of extratumoral blood vessels that exhibit vascular Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical permeability usually only attributed to intratumoral neovasculature has been demonstrated.32 Additionally, variants of this agent that target macrophages and highlight atherosclerotic plaques have also been recently demonstrated. The remainder of this paper, therefore, focuses on these capabilities of the liposomal blood pool agent. The processes used for the production of this agent Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical are exhaustively documented in previous
publications and are not reproduced here.31–33 We focus instead on the highlights of the imaging studies. Figure 1. Illustration of a liposomal blood Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical pool contrast agent. Whole-Body Vascular Imaging The pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of liposomal contrast agents have been studied in mice.31 32 Uniform and stable blood attenuation is obtained immediately after systemic administration of the liposomal contrast agent. The blood pool attenuation remains relatively uniform for several hours post administration, with attenuation decay gradually occurring over a period of several days. CT angiography studies performed in small and large animals demonstrated excellent visualization of the entire blood circulatory system using a single dose of liposomal contrast agent (Figure 2). Figure 2. 3D volume-rendered images demonstrating whole-body vasculature Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in
a pig (A) and sheep (B) model obtained after administration of liposomal blood pool contrast agent. Cardiovascular Imaging in Large Animals Unlike humans, cardiovascular CT imaging in small animals remains a major challenge.35 Due to higher heart rates (300 to 600 beats per minute) and respiration Entinostat rates (80 to 120 per minute) in rodents, cardiorespiratory-gated scans typically take 8 to 10 minutes per cardiac phase cycle (~120 minutes for 12 cardiac phases). Stable and uniform opacification is required for this entire period, before gated imaging is feasible. The liposomal agent has enabled such studies. The uniform opacification of the cardiac chambers also facilitates determination of cardiac function parameters, thus enabling facile cardiac phenotyping in rodent models.