For CD3ζ immunoprecipitation, insoluble material was pelleted, and the supernatant was incubated with 5 μg anti-CD3ζ (clone 6B10.2; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, SantaCruz, CA) and 50 μl 50% protein G–Sepharose (Pharmacia, Uppsala, Sweden). Cell lysates or immunoprecipitates were solubilized in reducing Laemmli sample buffer (BioRad), resolved by 10% SDS–PAGE and blotted onto nitrocellulose membranes (BioRad, Benicia, CA). Blots were probed with anti-phosphotyrosine (4G10; Upstate Biotechnology, Lake Placid, NY) or anti-CD3ζ (6B10.2; Santa Cruz Biotechnology) and horseradish peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibody
followed by detection with Super Signal Chemiluminescent Reagent (Pierce, Rockford, IL). For measurement of phosphorylation of p56Lck, stimulated cells were lysed and transferred to the nitrocellulose membrane before probing them with specific antibodies (PY 416; Cell Signaling) and blots were developed
Wnt cancer Ibrutinib as described above. Quantification was performed using multi gauge V3.0 software. For intracellular analysis of phosphorylation events in stimulated CTL,31 cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA) for 10 min at 37° after stimulation and permeabilized with 90% ice-cold methanol. For staining of total protein, resting cells were permeabilized with ice-cold methanol. Permeabilized cells were washed extensively with PBS and stained with anti-CD8 antibody and one of the following: anti-p56Lck-phycoerythrin conjugate (BD phosflow, SanJose, CA), anti-LAT (Cell Signaling), anti-pLAT (PY 191; Cell Signaling), or anti-ppERK AF647 conjugate (p44/42 MAPK; Cell Signaling). For detecting unconjugated antibodies, anti-rabbit IgG-allophycocyanin secondary antibody (1 : 1000; Molecular Probes, Carlsbad, CA) was used. Measurement of intracellular free Ca2+ was carried out using the calcium-sensitive dye Fluo-3 acetoxymethyl ester (Fluo-3
AM). Resting high or low avidity CD8+ T cells were loaded with 5 μm Fluo3 AM (Invitrogen Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA) in sterile and degassed FACS buffer (1 × PBS with 5% FCS) at 37° for 1 hr before. Dolutegravir order After washing, cells were incubated in the same medium at 37° for the indicated times. Samples were acquired on a FACSCalibur cytometer (Becton Dickinson, San Jose, CA). Basal Fluo3 fluorescence levels were measured for 60 seconds following which EL4 cells or EL4 cells loaded with Ova257–264 peptide (10−6, 10−9 and 10−12 M) were added. Calcium measurements were acquired for 60 seconds, followed by addition of CaCl2 (1 mm) to measure extracellular uptake. Data were analysed with flo jo software (Treestar, Ashland, OR). Our previous studies employing splenocytes from a TCR-transgenic mouse have shown that, at the population level, CTL of high or low avidity could be generated by stimulation with APC bearing low versus high amounts of antigen.