Proc Natl Acad Sci USA2007,104(1):213–215 PubMedCrossRef 62 Tana

Proc Natl Acad Sci USA2007,104(1):213–215.PubMedCrossRef 62. Tanaka A, Christensen

MJ, Takemoto D, Park P, Scott B:Reactive oxygen species play a role in regulating fungus-perennial ryegrass mutualistic interaction. The Plant Cell2006,18:1052–1066.PubMedCrossRef 63. Tanaka A, Takemoto D, Hyon G-S, Park P, Scott B:NoxA activation by the small GTPase RacA is required to maintain a mutualistic symbiotic association between Epichloë festucae and perennial ryegrass. Molecular Microbiology2008,68(5):1165–1178.PubMedCrossRef 64. Glazebrook J:Contrasting mechanisms of defense against biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens. Annual Review of Phytopathology2005,43:205–227.PubMedCrossRef 65. Govrin EM, Levine A:The hypersensitive response facilitates plant infection by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea.Current Biology2000,10(13):751–757.PubMedCrossRef 66. Rudd JJ, Keon J, Hammond-Kosack NVP-LDE225 manufacturer KE:The wheat mitogen-activated protein kinases TaMPK3 and TaMPK6 are differentially regulated at multiple MLN0128 price levels during compatible disease interactions with Mycosphaerella graminicola.Plant Physiology2008,147:802–815.PubMedCrossRef 67. Choquer M, Fournier E, Kunz C, Levis C, Pradier J-M, Simon A, Viaud M:Botrytis cinerea virulence factors: new insights into a necrotrophic and polyphageous pathogen. FEMS Microbiology Letters2007,277(1):1–10.PubMedCrossRef 68. Rolke Y, Liu S, Quidde

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Therefore, the effect of surface melting is smaller and


Therefore, the effect of surface melting is smaller and

the structures are similar to those obtained for the samples evaporated on glass substrate under RT (Figure 3), with the roughness also being only mildly changed. Figure 4 AFM images of the evaporated Au layers on glass heated to 300°C. The thicknesses of evaporated Au were 7, 18, and 35 nm. R a is the arithmetic mean surface roughness in nanometers. The influence of gold nanocluster formation has been also extensively studied [20] on mica. A phenomenological study Hedgehog antagonist was carried out to find a reliable way for the gold thin film preparation. The following parameters have been focused on: annealing time of the substrate before deposition of the gold film, deposition rate of the gold film, substrate temperature before

and during evaporation and annealing time after the deposition [20]. Deposition of Au films on mica with the deposition temperature 500°C led to the similar structures that we achieved on glass heated to 300°C, where pores and whiskers have been observed [20]. The gold nanocluster formation on glass substrate is strongly influenced by the physical processes of vapor-deposited thin gold films on glass substrate [21]. The processes which can alter the layer’s growth may be, e.g., chemical or plasma modification of the substrate [21] or gold and glass wettability [21]. The bonds between the gold clusters and the glass substrates are usually weak, and their wettability is relatively bad. It was reported that the gold nuclei diffusion on the surface is increased, as MK-8669 price well as their coalescence, when its wettability is poor [21]. On the contrary, if the wettability of gold for the substrate is improved (chemical modification of the surface), the interactions between the two materials are globally stronger, and both the diffusion and coalescence of the metal clusters are disfavored [21]. Optical properties The UV–vis extinction spectra of Au nanolayers deposited on substrate before second and after annealing process are introduced in Figure 5. The

absorbance of both annealed and non-annealed gold structures increases with increasing structure thickness as could be expected. From the comparison of the spectra of evaporated and annealed samples, it is seen that the annealed structures have qualitatively different shapes and lower absorbance. Both phenomena arise from structural changes due to annealing. From our previous experiments, which have been focused on the behavior of sputtered gold nanostructures on glass, it was determined that for the sputtered Au, a shift of 530-nm absorption peak was observed [5] which corresponds to surface plasmon resonance. This shift with increasing Au thickness towards longer wavelengths was probably related to the interconnection and mutual interaction of gold nanoparticles in the structure [5].

2 Samples were taken and cell extracts were separated on a SDS-P

2. Samples were taken and cell extracts were separated on a SDS-PAGE gel. Proteins were then transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane, which was probed with antibodies specific for the FLAG peptide (Sigma), ProteinA (Sigma) or GFP (Roche). The membranes were then incubated with HRP-labeled anti-mouse IgG (Sigma), and binding of antibody visualized by scanning with a Syngene Gene Genius Bioimaging System. Affinity isolation of LacI::6 × His A 100 ml culture of strain MG1655lacI::6 × his was grown in LB medium at 37°C to an OD650 of 1.2. Cells were harvested and re-suspended in 4 mls of lysis buffer (10 mM Tris, 100 mM NaCl, 10% Glycerol).

Lysozyme was added to a final concentration FDA-approved Drug Library purchase of 400 μg/ml, and the mixture incubated on ice for MG-132 ic50 30 minutes, with regular mixing. After lysozyme treatment, the lysate was cleared by centrifugation and the supernatant incubated with 200 μl of NTA-Ni-agarose beads (Qiagen), on ice for 30 minutes. The supernatant was then removed, and the beads washed with 1 ml of wash buffer (10 mM Tris, 100 mM NaCl, 10% Glycerol, 10 mM Imidazole). LacI::6 × His was then eluted from the beads with 100 μl of elution buffer

(10 mM Tris, 100 mM NaCl, 10% Glycerol, 250 mM Imidazole). Acknowledgements The Authors would like to thank Prof. C Thomas (University of Birmingham) for the gift of the pEX100T plasmid, and Dr. T Overton (University of Birmingham) for the gift of the pSUB11 plasmid derivative carrying the 3 × FLAG sequence, used in the initial construction of the pDOC-K plasmid. This work was supported by a Wellcome Trust Programme Grant 076689 to SJWB, and BBSRC grant BB/E01044X/1 to CWP, JLH and MJP. The Birmingham Functional Interleukin-2 receptor Genomics laboratory was supported by a Joint Infrastructure Fund grant JIF13209. The strains and plasmids generated in this work are freely available upon request. Electronic supplementary material Additional file 1: Annotated sequence of the pDOC plasmids. The file contains the DNA sequence of each pDOC plasmid with annotation of

open reading frames, multi-cloning sites and primer binding sites. (DOC 218 KB) References 1. Court DL, Sawitzke JA, Thomason LC: Genetic engineering using homologous recombination. Annu Rev Genet 2002, 36:361–388.CrossRefPubMed 2. Datsenko KA, Wanner BL: One-step inactivation of chromosomal genes in Escherichia coli K-12 using PCR products. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000,97(12):6640–6645.CrossRefPubMed 3. Ellis HM, Yu D, DiTizio T, Court DL: High efficiency mutagenesis, repair, and engineering of chromosomal DNA using single-stranded oligonucleotides. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001,98(12):6742–6746.CrossRefPubMed 4. Herring CD, Glasner JD, Blattner FR: Gene replacement without selection: regulated suppression of amber mutations in Escherichia coli. Gene 2003, 311:153–163.CrossRefPubMed 5. Murphy KC: Use of bacteriophage lambda recombination functions to promote gene replacement in Escherichia coli.

Statistical analysis of microarray data The cells were infected w

Statistical analysis of microarray data The cells were infected with either (A) the H1N1/2002 strain or (B) the H5N1/2004 strain, or (C)

mock-infected with PBS (no infection control). Cell samples were collected at 3, 6, 18 and 24 hours post-infection. Each miRNA array allowed us to interrogate 866 human miRNAs. The results were analyzed using Genespring GX 10.0.2 software (Agilent Technologies). Firstly, the 16 arrays were quantile normalized selleck compound together. Then, student’s paired t-test was applied to test if there was a significant difference between (A) the H1N1/2002-infected and (C) mock-infected, no infection control (matched for the time post-infection), (B) the H5N1/2004-infected and (C) mock-infected control, respectively. The resultant P-values were adjusted for multiple testing by using the Benjamini-Hochberg correction of the false-discovery rate [37]. MiRNAs with this adjusted P-value <= 0.05 were considered as differentially see more expressed. Those miRNAs, that are more than or equal to 3.5-fold up or down regulated were subjected to a second analysis using real-time RT-PCR. MicroRNA profiling data resource The data discussed in this publication have been deposited in NCBI’s Gene Expression Omnibus [38] and are accessible through GEO Series accession number GSE44455. TaqMan Real Time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) for quantification of miRNAs Total RNA was reverse

transcribed with looped miRNA-specific RT primers contained in the TaqMan MicroRNA assays ((Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). Briefly, single-stranded cDNA was synthesized from 10 ng total RNA in 15-μL reaction volume with TaqMan MicroRNA reverse transcription kit (Applied Biosystems), according to the manufacturer’s protocol. The reaction was incubated

at 16°C for 30 min followed by 30 min at 42°C and inactivation at 85°C for 5 min. Each cDNA was amplified Branched chain aminotransferase with sequence-specific TaqMan microRNA assays (Applied Biosystems). PCR reactions were performed on an Applied Biosystems Step One sequence detection system in 10 μl volumes at 95°C for 10 min, followed by 40 cycles of 95°C for 15 sec and 60°C for 1 min. All samples were tested in triplicate. The threshold cycle (Ct) values obtained with the SDS software (Applied Biosystems) were compared with the Ct obtained from 18S rRNA assay (Applied Biosystems) for the normalization of total RNA input. The fold-change was calculated based on Ct changes of mean medium Ct minus individual Ct of a miRNA. Each experiment was performed in triplicate. qRT-PCR for quantification of TGF-β2 mRNA level Total RNA extracted from cell cultures was reversely transcripted to cDNA using the poly(dT) primers and Superscript III reverse transcriptase (Invitrogen), and quantified by real-time PCR. The sense and antisense primers used in real-time PCR for measuring TGF-β2 were: (Forward: 5′-CCAAAGGGTACAATGCCAAC-3′; Reverse: 5′-TAAGCTCAGGACCCTGCTGT-3′).

Colloid Surface A 2007, 299:209–216 CrossRef Competing interests

Colloid Surface A 2007, 299:209–216.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions BK carried out the ligand modulation and nanoemulsion and drafted the manuscript. JY conceived of the experimental design and condition. E-KL carried out the synthesis

of magnetic nanoparticles. JP conceived of the particle relaxivity analysis. J-SS GW-572016 nmr participated in the modification of magnetic resonance imaging sequence. HSP performed the statistical analysis. Y-MH and SH participated in the design of the study and drafted the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Nanoparticles of noble metals exhibit unique optical, chemical, catalytic, and electronic properties which make them attractive for a wide range of applications in many domains. The most common way for preparing such nanoparticles, named as ‘wet chemistry’, consists in reducing a soluble metal precursor (AuIII or AgI) by a soluble reducing agent in the presence of a stabilizing species which keeps the formed nanoparticles from aggregation. Turkevich-Fens’s method uses AuCl4 − ions and sodium citrate as both reducer and stabilizing agent and gives approximately 20-nm spherical nanoparticles [1, 2]. Numerous

other stabilizing Acalabrutinib ic50 agents have been further used. In Brust’s synthesis, a two-phase aqueous-organic solution with tetraoctylammonium bromide transfer species and a strong stabilizing thiol agent are implemented and the reaction of AuCl4 − and NaBH4 in these conditions allows the preparation of stable 1- to 5-nm Au clusters [3]. Regarding silver

nanoparticles, the most common synthesis is the reduction of silver cation/complex by chemical agents such as borohydride or hydrazine [4, 5]. From the so-called polyol process displaying ethylene glycol as both reductant and solvent, various nanoparticles including Au and Ag could be obtained [6, ADP ribosylation factor 7]. As hazardous products occur and may generate biocompatibility or environment problems, a recent development of ‘green synthesis’ was stimulated, for which environmentally friendly reducing agents are used, including saccharides or natural extracts [8]. Suspensions of supported metal nanoparticles on inorganic solids can be formed by wetness impregnation or alkaline (co-) precipitation [9, 10]. These routes give low metal loads (wt.%) and require a final gas reduction treatment by H2 or CO, with some possible efficiency problems for the complete conversion to metal. Fe2+ ion is a ‘green’ reducing species present in the crystalline structure of various solids including sulfides, carbonates, hydroxisalts, and clays. As the oxidation of structural FeII ions usually occurs in a very cathodic potential domain, the transfer of electrons to numerous oxidants is therefore possible.

Quantitative analysis The quantitative analysis was performed mea

Quantitative analysis The quantitative analysis was performed measuring the most obstructive sample from the 3 sections in each case, and for the extension of atherosclerosis all plaques from the 3 sections were measured, as exemplified in Figure 2. The most severely obstructed vessel segment was measured based on the knowledge that the shortest diameter even in an oblique section of a tube is the same as the diameter in a cross-section at right angles to the longitudinal JQ1 molecular weight axis, fact

that is referred to be valid also for wall thickness and luminal vessel diameter [37]. Figure 2A shows perpendicular measures, corresponding to

the most obstructive section. A flat shape of the lumen suggests that the segment is collapsed despite of perfusion fixation. Collapsing might have happened during the embedding procedure. The three segments of each case measured around 6 mm length with less than 1 mm thickness. They were embedded in a same paraffin block and it was difficult to maintain them in perpendicular position. Therefore during embedding in a same paraffin block it was difficult to maintain them in perpendicular position and the sections look oblique. An irregular morphology suggesting a bifurcation area as exemplified Selleck GDC 0068 in section 3, is probably caused by a positive versus absent or negative vessel remodeling induced by atherosclerosis development [38, 39]. In this section, the upper side represents a fat plaque in both sides of the vessel, Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase which is associated with a positive vessel remodeling, and the inferior part, a fibrotic plaque with no vessel remodeling. The obstruction was evaluated by perpendicular measures to the vessel long axis, obtaining external diameter, plaque height, luminal diameter,

% luminal obstruction and % fat area in the plaque. The measurements were made only in one plane, across the lowest diameter, in the Masson’s Trichrome and H&E slides, using the Leica – Quantimet 500 Image Analysis System (Cambridge, UK), by obtaining the following variables: a) vessel diameter (distance comprised by the external elastic membrane); b) potential luminal diameter (distance comprised by the internal elastic membrane); c) height of the plaque, and d) luminal diameter. The % luminal obstruction was calculated using the formula: (potential luminal diameter – luminal diameter)/potential luminal diameter × 100). The % lipid content was calculated by measuring the non-stained plaque regions (total plaque area less the fibromuscular area detected by automatic color detection).

Results and discussion The successful synthesis of high-quality m

Results and discussion The successful synthesis of high-quality monodisperse quantum dots (QDs) must start with a swift and short nucleation from supersaturated reactants, followed by growth without further nucleation [24, 25]. In this study, this excess selenium situation significantly enhanced the reaction of the metal acetylacetonates [Cu(acac)2, Zn(acac)2, and Sn(acac)4] selleckchem with selenium, resulting in a short nucleation stage. This synthetic tactic is advantageous over the typical hot-injection synthesis [24], which requires a relatively high injection temperature (usually above 250°C) to generate burst nucleation.

Figure 1a shows the XRD pattern of the CZTSe NCs. The diffraction peaks in the XRD pattern appear at 27.3°, 45.3°, 53.6°, 66.3°, and 72.8°, consistent with the (112), (220/204), (312), (400/008), and (316) planes, respectively, which match those of tetragonal-phase CTZSe (JCPDS 52-0868). The diffraction peaks of stoichiometric Cu2SnSe4 and ZnSe are very similar to those of CZTSe. To ensure our results, Raman scattering is also performed for a more definitive assignment of the structure [26].

Figure 1b shows the Raman spectrum selleck inhibitor of the CZTSe NCs. One peak at around 192 cm−1 is detected, which matches well with that of bulk CZTSe (192 cm−1). However, the peaks are slightly broader and shifted with respect to those of the bulk crystal. Broadening of Raman peaks has been observed previously for NCs of other materials and attributed to phonon confinement within the NCs [27]. Both

characterizations suggest that pure-phase CTZSe NCs are synthesized. Figure 1 XRD pattern, Raman spectrum, HRTEM image, for and optical absorption spectrum of CZTSe NCs. (a) XRD pattern of CZTSe NCs. [The standard diffraction lines of tetragonal-phase CTZSe (JCPDS 52-0868) are shown at the bottom for comparison.] (b) Raman spectrum of CZTSe NCs. (c) HRTEM image of CZTSe NCs. (d) Optical absorption spectrum of CZTSe NCs. (The inset shows the bandgap of CZTSe NCs). Figure 1c shows a high-resolution transmission electron micrograph (HRTEM) of CZTSe NCs. The average size of CZTSe NCs is about 3 nm. CZTSe NCs have better dispersibility. Figure 1d shows the UV-vis absorption spectrum of CZTSe NCs and the corresponding bandgap of CZTSe NCs. The bandgap of CZTSe NCs was estimated to be 1.76 eV by extrapolating the linear region of a plot of the squared absorbance versus the photon energy. This is mainly attributed to the small size and quantum confinement effect of CTZSe NCs [28]. Figure 2 shows the FTIR spectra of OLA and CZTSe NCs before and after ligand exchange. The transfer of CZTSe NCs from toluene to FA resulted in complete disappearance of the peaks at 2,852 and 2,925 cm−1 corresponding to C-H stretching in the original organic ligand. As shown in the inset photograph, the two-phase mixture that contained immiscible layers of FA (down) and toluene (up) showed the ligand exchange of CZTSe NCs.

Photoluminescence Room-temperature photoluminescence spectra of a

Photoluminescence Room-temperature photoluminescence spectra of all the samples are shown in Figure 5a.

All samples exhibited two dominant peaks. The first and sharpest peak is centered on 378 nm and was assigned to the near-band edge (NBE) emission or to the free exciton emission. The intensity of the NBE emission decreases with the increase of Cu concentration for both precursors Cu(CH3COO)2 and Cu(NO3)2. This may have resulted from the formation of the nonradiative centers in the Cu-doped selleck chemical samples [28]. In comparison between the two precursors, the nanorods doped with Cu(NO3)2 (samples S4 and S5) showed a higher NBE emission compared to the nanorods doped with Cu(CH3COO)2 (samples S2 and S3). This observation could be due to the

higher anion concentration in samples S2 and S3 [35]. The UV emission peak of the Cu-doped samples showed a small redshift (approximately 6 nm) relative to the undoped ZnO, where the shift is clearer for the samples doped with Cu(NO3) (S4 and S5). This may be attributed to the rigid shift in the valence and the conduction bands due to the coupling of the band electrons and the localized Cu2+ impurity spin [16]. It can be observed that there is a small shoulder at around 390 nm, and it becomes pronounced for sample 3, which is doped with 2 at.% Cu from Cu(CH3COO)2, and this shoulder is ascribed to the free electron-shallow acceptor HDAC inhibitor transitions [25, 26]. Additionally, there is a luminescence peak at around 544 nm, which is called the deep-level emission (DLE) or blue-green emission band. When 1 at.% Cu is added from Cu(CH3COO)2, the intensity of this peak increased slightly (sample S2) and decreased again when 2 at.% Cu is added from the same precursor (sample S3),becoming nearly identical with the undoped ZnO nanorods (sample S1). This result suggests that the green emission is independent of Cu concentration. On the other hand, when we use Cu(NO3)2 as the Cu source (samples S4 and S5), the green emission enhanced significantly for sample S5 (doped with 2 at.%). Interestingly, the origin of the green

emission is questionable because it has been observed in both undoped and Cu-doped ZnO nanorod samples. Vanheusden et al. [36] attributed the green emission during to the transitions between the photoexcited holes and singly ionized oxygen vacancies. Based on these arguments, the high oxygen vacancy concentration may be responsible for the higher green emission intensity of sample S5. Additionally, the ratio (R) of the NBE emission intensity to the DLE intensity is shown in Figure 5b. The R decreases with the increase of Cu concentration. Figure 5 PL spectra and relative ratio. (a) Room-temperature PL spectra of undoped and Cu-doped ZnO nanorods; the inset shows the blue-green emission bands. (b) The relative ratio of PL intensity (R = I(UV)/I(DLE)).

Some of the divergences observed may be explained by the fact tha

Some of the divergences observed may be explained by the fact that various eveniences may influence the serum IGF-I levels: age and gender [47], inflammatory processes [48], other concomitant diseases [49, 50], endocrine diseases [47], nutrition [47], drug administration and liver toxicity. Furthermore, melphalan therapy, which is hepatotoxic and therefore

should reduce IGF-I synthesis, has been reported to increase IGF-I molecules after the 4th course [40], possibly when it was effective in restoring the peripheral blood IGF-I amounts. It is also possible to speculate that the cytotoxic effect of therapy should release a great amount of endocellular molecules from necrotic cells with induction of inflammatory processes and IGF-I drop. In conclusion, as previously reported for other neoplastic diseases [42, 51], serum IGF-I selleck chemicals concentrations are clearly reduced in case of open disease. Therefore, a clinical use of serum determinations of this molecule should be made very carefully since this substance does not show a clear specificity for MM. A possible role of IGF-I as putative monitoring marker of malignant disease seems to emerge by our study, even though specific clinical trials need to be planned and the possible interference of other factors in serum

determinations should be considered. References 1. Berenson JR, Ed: Biology and management of multiple myeloma. Humana Press New Jersey, USA 2004. 2. Zhong H, Bowen JP: Antiangiogenesis drug design: multiple pathways targeting tumour vasculature. Curr Med Chem 2006, 13: 849–862.CrossRefPubMed 3. Shih T, Lindley C: Bevacizumab: an angiogenesis inhibitor for the treatment of solid malignancies. Clin Torin 1 Ther 2006, 28: 1779–1802.CrossRefPubMed 4. Rosinol L, Cibeira MT, Segarra M, Cid MC, Filella X, Aymerich M, Rozman M, Arenillas L, Esteve J, Blade J, Montserrat E: Response to Thalidomide in multiple myeloma: impact of angiogenic factors. Cytokine 2004, 26: 145–148.CrossRefPubMed 5. Ribatti D, Nico B, Vacca A: Importance of the bone marrow microenvironment in inducine the angiogenic response in multiple myeloma. Oncogene 2006, 25: 4257–4266.CrossRefPubMed 6. Vacca A, Ribatti D: Bone marrow angiogenesis in multiple

myeloma. Leukemia 2006, 20: 193–199.CrossRefPubMed 7. Kumar S, Witzig TE, Timm M, Haug J, Wellik L, Kimlinger TK, Greipp PR, Rajkumar SV: Bone marrow angiogenic ability and expression of angiogenic cytokines in myeloma: evidence favoring loss of marrow angiogenesis inhibitory activity with disease progression. Blood 2004, 104: 1159–1165.CrossRefPubMed 8. Urba Ska-Rys H, Wierzbowska A, Robak T: Circulating angiogenic cytokines in multiple myeloma and related disorders. Eur Cytokine Netw 2003, 14: 40–51.PubMed 9. Ribas C, Colleoni GW, Silva MR, Carregoza MJ, Bordin JO: Prognostic significance of vascular endothelial growth factor immunoexpression in the context of adverse standard prognostic factors in multiple myeloma. Eur J Haematol 2004, 73: 311–317.CrossRefPubMed 10.

(d) Raman spectra obtained from the plant SiO2 substrate (upper)

(d) Raman spectra obtained from the plant SiO2 substrate (upper) and glass fibers (lower). In fact, graphene growth on the plant SiO2 substrate are predominantly monolayer, due to the growth process is self-limited. As is well

known, SiO2 has higher surface energy than after it is covered by graphene. Namely, the cohesion energy between SiO2 and graphene is higher than that of graphene-to-graphene. Therefore, selleck chemical after being covered by a layer of graphene, the carbon species become hard to nucleate on the graphene-covered area due to the relatively weak cohesion energy, refusing to form the second layer [31]. But, one exception occurs at the defects where the dangling bonds give more opportunities for carbon adsorption to form the multilayer or many-layered graphene. For the glass fiber case, there are many overlaps and defects CHIR-99021 solubility dmso on the surface. From the EDX spectrum (shown in the inset of Figure  4c), there are also many metal element existed in the SiO2 wires. The metal elements existed in the SiO2 wires are caused by the formation of the glass membranes. All of the overlaps and defects can be used as the catalyst sites to further grow the graphene layers. From Figure  4c, many graphene layers have been covered on the overlaps of the glass fibers, which revealed that carbon species are easily nucleate on such areas. We also

measured the sheet resistance (Rs) of the prepared graphene film obtained at room temperature. The calculated average value of the Rs is approximately 700, 300, and 180 Ω/sq for the plant SiO2, SMF, and glass fiber membrane substrate. The excellent electrical properties further demonstrate that high-quality graphene layers can be prepared using such two-heating reactor CVD system in the relatively low temperature. The lower sheet resistance of the glass fiber membrane samples is caused by the more layers of the graphene films. Conclusions We have demonstrated the facile low-temperature growth of 3D graphene/glass fiber wire-type structures using a two-heating

reactor. The higher constant-temperature zone offers enough power for the dissociation of methane with the assist of copper catalyst, and the lower constant-temperature zone makes that the decomposed carbon atoms deposit readily on the substrate. Graphene layers can be grown on the different diameter wire-type glass fiber surface to form graphene/glass Quisqualic acid fiber wire-type structures. The morphology and electrical properties of such structures can be controlled by changing the growth time. These results suggest that the 3D graphene films can be deposited on any proper wire-type substrates. Authors’ information BM is a professor in the college of Physics and Electronics at Shandong Normal University, China. He is a Ph.D. supervisor. His main research interests include nanomaterials and laser plasma. CY has graduated from SungKyunKwan University (SKKU), Korea. Currently, he works at Shandong Normal University.