Microbial Pathog 1990, 9:47–53 CrossRef 18 Fields PI, Swanson RV

Microbial Pathog 1990, 9:47–53.CrossRef 18. Fields PI, Swanson RV, Hardaris CG, Heffron F: Mutants of Salmonella typhimurium that cannot survive within the macrophage are avirulent.

Proc Nat Acad Sci, USA 1986, 83:5189–5193.CrossRef 19. Fink SL, Cookson BT: Pyroptosis and host cell death responses during Salmonella infection. Cell Microbiol 2007, 9:2562–2570.PubMedCrossRef 20. Jones BD, Lee CA, Falkow S: Invasion by Salmonella typhimurium is affected by the direction of flagellar rotation. Infect Immun 1992, 60:2475–2480.PubMed 21. Hautefort I, Thompson A, Eriksson-Ygberg S, Parker ML, Lucchini S, Danino V, Bongaerts RJ, Ahmad N, Rhen M, Hinton JC: During infection of epithelial cells Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium undergoes a time-dependent transcriptional adaptation that results in simultaneous expression of three type 3 secretion systems. Cell Microbiol 2008, 10:958–984.PubMedCrossRef 22. NVP-BSK805 price Knodler LA, Vallance Selleckchem MEK inhibitor BA, Celli J, Winfree S, Hansen B, Montero M, Steele-Mortimer O: Dissemination of invasive Salmonella via bacterial-induced extrusion of mucosal epithelia. Proc Nat Acad Sci, USA 2010, 107:17733–17738.CrossRef 23. Kim M, Lim S, Kim D, Choy HE, Ryu S: A tdcA mutation reduces

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25. Webber MA, Fenbendazole Bailey AM, Blair JMA, Morgan E, Stevens MP, Hinton J, Ivens A, Wain J, Piddock LJV: The global consequence of disruption of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump in Salmonella enterica includes reduced expression of SPI-1 and other attributes required to infect the host. J Bac 2009, 191:4276–4285.CrossRef 26. Liu SL, Ezaki T, Miura H, Matsui K, Yabuuchi X: Intact motility as a Salmonella typhi invasion-related factor. Infect Immun 1988, 56:1967–1973.PubMed 27. Eriksson S, Lucchini S, Thompson A, Rhen M, Hinton JC: Unraveling the biology of macrophage infection by gene expression profiling of intracellular Salmonella enterica . Mol Microbiol 2003, 47:103–118.PubMedCrossRef 28. Stewart MK, Cummings LA, Johnson ML, Berezow AB, Cookson BT: Regulation of phenotypic heterogeneity permits Salmonella evasion of he host caspase-1 inflammatory response. PNAS 2011, 108:20742–20747.PubMedCrossRef 29. Wyant TL, Tanner MK, Sztein MB: Salmonella typhi flagella are potent inducers of proinflammatory cytokine secretion by human monocytes. Infect Immun 1999, 67:3619–3624.PubMed 30. Metcalfe HJ, Best A, Kanellos T, La Ragione RM, Werling D: Flagellin expression enhances Salmonella accumulation in TLR5-positive macrophages. Develop Compar Immunol 2010, 34:797–804.CrossRef 31.

Furthermore, it is possible to distinguish these three species

Furthermore, it is possible to distinguish these three species CAL-101 using meting curve following the PCR assay (Figure 7). Using similar strategy, additional Borrelia species, such as emerging B. miyamotoi, can be identified in the future with a little tweaking of the assay. The best time to develop an efficient diagnostic assay is when infections by a particular organism start emerging among human or animal populations, environment or in the vectors. This ensures that a well-standardized and efficient diagnostic test is available when significant population starts

getting affected by the emerging pathogen. The infections of tick populations by two tick-borne pathogens, A. phagocytophilum and Babesia species have been increasing in both Europe and the United States, and the cases of infections by these emerging pathogens are also getting reported at a higher numbers in both continents [1, 2]. Indeed, coinfections with these tick-borne pathogens have started appearing in the patients, and result in more severe illnesses IBET762 than those observed when the patient is infected by each pathogen individually [27, 81]. Therefore, we decided to expand our real-time PCR approach to include detection of these two emerging pathogens. Optimized PCR conditions for each emerging pathogen, B. microti and A. phagocytophilum BmTPK and APH1387 gene amplicons, respectively along with the human ACTA1

amplicon (Figures 3 and 4) worked well even in quadrupex assay in which serially diluted genomic DNA of B. burgdorferi and human could be accurately detected in addition to BmTPK and APH1387 containing plasmid DNA (Figure 5). Similarly, a 100-fold excess of B. microti

and A. phagocytophilum copy number did not affect accuracy of detection of B. burgdorferi (Figure 6B). Moreover, this test could detect as few as 103 copies of both APH1387 and BmTPK in mixed genomic DNA presence containing an excess (upto 103-fold higher or 106 copy number) of B. burgdorferi DNA indicating the sensitivity and accuracy of the assay is maintained irrespective of the different Niclosamide load of the pathogens presence in the sample (Figure 6A). These results demonstrate that we can use this assay to efficiently and relatively quickly detect individual pathogens, such as B. microti in blood bank samples using the approach used in the Figure 3. We can also diagnose coinfections with two or three pathogens in the endemic regions for these tick-borne diseases using the quadruplex assay (Figures 5 and 6). Finally, success of our assay with B. burgdorferi spiked human blood indicates that we will be able to use it for diagnostic purpose in human patients (Figure 8). Although real-time PCR and other techniques have been tested for identification of Lyme spirochetes and other tick-borne pathogens individually, albeit primarily in ticks [6, 78, 80, 82–86], this is the first comprehensive study to develop assay for sensitive detection of three tick-borne pathogens simultaneously.

minima within Craspedida based on partial 28S rRNA sequences excl

minima within Craspedida based on partial 28S rRNA sequences excluding the fast evolving divergent D2 region using MrBayes. Posterior probability and bootstrap values above 0.5 and 50 are shown. Scale bar represents 0.1 mutations per position. Values above 0.99 and 99 are presented as bold face branches. Scale bar represents 0.1 mutations per

position. Amoebidium parasiticum (Ichthyosporea) was used as outgroup representative. Cultivation and morphology Choanoflagellate cultures were maintained under oxic conditions. The culture development in both strains was similar during the first 4–6 days after inoculation to fresh medium, though strain IOW94 proliferated one to two days slower under the same conditions, and tends to aggregate to clumps of bacteria. On days 2 to 3, strains demonstrated solitary cells on a stalk of different lengths (Figures 5, 6). On days 3 to learn more 4, the development of two-cell colonies appeared (Figure 6A). Such colony types were common for IOW73, and are also typical for Codosiga

gracilis de Saedeleer, 1927 (basionym Monosiga gracilis Kent, 1880), but with larger cell dimensions. Strain IOW94 normally produced 2–4 cell colonies, though occasionally largely colonies were formed. Figure 5 Codosiga balthica n. sp. strain IOW94. Light (A) and transmission electron (B-G) micrographs. A. Single cell on the stalk (st), living material under phase contrast. Arrowheads Epigenetics inhibitor show the whiskers. B. Longitudinal section through the cell covered with delicate sheath (arrowheads); insert: enlarged mitochondria of class 1 (m1) with tubular/saccular cristae. C. Cytoplasm at cell posterior filled with endobiotic bacteria. D–E. structure of large flagellated bacteria with flagellar at cross section (D) and longitudinal section (E). F. mitochondria class 1 (m1) with tubular/saccular cristae. G. mitochondria class 2 (m2) structure with tubular cristae and lipid globule association with bfb. Scale bars: A – 3 μm, B – 1 μm, C-F – 200 nm, G – 400 nm. Figure 6 Codosiga minima n. Cobimetinib in vitro sp. strain IOW73. Light (A) and transmission electron (B-G) micrographs. A. Single cell and two-cell colony

with a stalk (st), living material under phase contrast. B. Longitudinal section of the cell, arrowheads show a delicate sheath around the cell body and proximal part of collar microvilli (mv). Insert upper right: transversal section through the collar with food vacuole (fv) with bacterium at outer side of the collar. Insert down left: two mitochondrial profiles with tube-like cristae (arrows). C. Longitudinal section of feeding cell in the colony: pseudopodium (ps) arises from the neck. D. Longitudinal section of flagellar kinetosome (kn) with one row of radiating microtubules (arrows). Scale bars in A = 4 μm, B (+ upper insert), C = 2 μm, B (down insert), D = 500 nm. Strain IOW94 was present as sedentary stalked solitary cells and as colonies.

The fold change in the abundance of the 88 ORF transcripts betwee

The fold change in the abundance of the 88 ORF transcripts between each test condition (growth in LB with 2,2’-dipyridyl, serum and urine) and the reference condition (growth in LB) was calculated by using the 2-ΔΔCT method [47, 48]. The average of 3 housekeeping genes (gapA dinB yjaD) was used for the normalization [44]. Briefly, the first ΔCt represents the difference of Ct between the

investigated gene and the average of the 3 housekeeping genes and the ΔΔCt is then calculated using the formula ΔΔCt=ΔCt(test condition)- ΔCt(reference condition). For transcriptome analysis during growth in vitro and ex vivo, three independent experiments (biological and technical replicates) were performed in each condition, including growth, RNA extraction GW786034 in vitro and qRT-PCR. The in vivo experiment was

performed only once because of the limited available amount of urine. A p value for each ORF was calculated by using Student’s t test to compare the three replicates for each bacterial growth condition. Acknowledgments This work was supported in part by the “Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale” for CL. This funding had no role in design, analysis, and interpretation of data; or in writing of the manuscript. References 1. Bidet P, Mahjoub-Messai F, Blanco J, Blanco J, Dehem M, Aujard Y, Bingen E, Bonacorsi S: Combined Lazertinib Multilocus Sequence Typing and O Serogrouping Distinguishes Escherichia coli Subtypes Associated with Infant Urosepsis and/or Meningitis. J Infect Dis 2007, 196:297–303.PubMedCrossRef 2. Bonacorsi S, Clermont O, Houdouin V, Cordevant C, Brahimi N, Marecat A, Tinsley C, Nassif X, Lange M, Bingen E: Molecular analysis and experimental virulence of french and north american Escherichia coli neonatal meningitis isolates; Identification of new virulent clone.

Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase J Infect Dis 2003, 187:1895–1906.PubMedCrossRef 3. Peigne C, Bidet P, Mahjoub-Messai F, Plainvert C, Barbe V, Medigue C, Frapy E, Nassif X, Denamur E, Bingen E, et al.: The plasmid of Escherichia coli strain S88 (O45:K1:H7) that causes neonatal meningitis is closely related to avian pathogenic E. coli plasmids and is associated with high-level bacteremia in a neonatal rat meningitis model. Infect Immun 2009,77(6):2272–2284.PubMedCrossRef 4. Johnson TJ, Siek KE, Johnson SJ, Nolan LK: DNA sequence of a ColV plasmid and prevalence of selected plasmid-encoded virulence genes among avian Escherichia coli strains. J Bacteriol 2006,188(2):745–758.PubMedCrossRef 5. Mahjoub-Messai F, Bidet P, Caro V, Diancourt L, Biran V, Aujard Y, Bingen E, Bonacorsi S: Escherichia coli isolates causing bacteremia via gut translocation and urinary tract infection in young infants exhibit different virulence genotypes. J Infect Dis 2011,203(12):1844–1849.PubMedCrossRef 6. Mellata MAK, Mo H, Curtiss R: Characterization of the contribution to virulence of three large plasmids of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli chi7122 (O78:K80:H9).

The shift between the first and second judgment was on an average

The shift between the first and second judgment was on an average of 0.7 cm (SD 0.5). Therefore, a shift of <1.2 cm is regarded as not intentional (average + 1 SD) and thus, not clinically relevant. Moreover, in previous studies in which VAS were used, shifts between 9 and 13 mm were considered to be clinically relevant

(Kelly 1998; Gallagher et al. 2001; Bodian et al. 2001; Ehrich et al. 2000). In these studies, the VAS was used on an individual level and analysed on a group level, which is also the procedure in the present study. Data analysis The age of the IPs and of the claimants in the two groups, and the number of years’ experience the IPs had in work-ability assessment, Apoptosis inhibitor were given as a mean value with the standard deviation. Other characteristics were noted as numbers and percentages. A shift of more than 1.2 cm in the judgment of the IPs was considered a difference between first and second assessment. The McNemar

Chi-square test for paired samples was used to test the significance of the effect of FCE information on IPs’ judgment of physical work ability (Altman 1991). Tests were performed for the 12 activities as a whole, as well as for the separate activities. The Bonferroni correction was applied, as a result of which a P-value smaller than 0.004 was considered to be statistically significant. The relation between the results of the FCE assessment and find more the shift in judgment of the IPs was first studied

by classifying Edoxaban the results of the FCE assessment for each activity into our separate classes. These classes were: 0–33% (class 1), 34–50% (class 2), 51–66% (class 3) and 67–100% (class 4). These classes represent the ability to perform that activity during a whole day (higher number means better abilities). In addition, some strenuous activities, such as kneeling, movements above shoulder height, dynamic movements of the trunk, and reaching, cannot be performed during the whole day according to the Ergo Kit FCE. The maximum ability for these strenuous activities is set at 66% for the whole day and these classes were recalculated starting from 0 to 66% into four classes. Lifting and grip and pinch force are presented in the FCE report in kilograms and classified into norm scores by the test leader. The outcome and classes were: not possible, very low (class 1), low (class 2), average (class 3), high and very high (class 4). Second, the outcomes of 11 out of the 12 activities (static bend work postures is not summarized in the FCE report) were compared to the first VAS score by the IP. To this end, the VAS was divided proportionally into four categories as in the FCE classification. The categories were: 0–3.3 cm (class 1), 3.4–5.0 cm (class 2), 5.1–6.6 cm (class 3) and 6.7–10 cm (class 4). The classification for each activity in the four classes based on the first VAS score of the IP and the FCE result were compared.

Nat Phys 2008, 4:859–863 CrossRef 23 Sato Y, Tanaka Y, Upham J,

Nat Phys 2008, 4:859–863.CrossRef 23. Sato Y, Tanaka Y, Upham J, Takahashi Y, Asano T, Noda S: Strong coupling between distant photonic nanocavities and its dynamic control. Nat Photon 2012, 6:56–61.CrossRef 24. Vučković J, Lončar M, Mabuchi H, Scherer A: Design of photonic crystal microcavities for cavity QED. Phys Rev E 2001, 65:016608.CrossRef 25. Akahane Y, Asano T, Song B-S, Noda S: High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal. Nature 2003, 425:944–947.CrossRef 26. Akahane Y, Asano T, Song B-S, Noda S: Fine-tuned high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity. Selleckchem Ilomastat Opt Express 2005, 13:1202–1214.CrossRef

27. Song B-S, Noda S, Asano T, Akahane Y: Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity. Nat Mater 2005, 4:207–210.CrossRef 28. Hagino H, Takahashi Y, Tanaka Y, Asano T, Noda S: Effects of fluctuation in air hole radii and positions on optical characteristics in photonic crystal heterostructure nanocavities. Phys Rev B 2009, 79:085112.CrossRef 29. Painter O, Lee RK, Scherer A, Yariv A, O’Brien JD, Dapkus PD, Kim I: Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser. Temsirolimus in vitro Science 1999, 284:1819–1821.CrossRef

30. Sprik R, Tiggelen BA, Lagendijk A: Optical emission in periodic dielectrics. Europhysics Letters 1996, 35:265.CrossRef 31. Scully MO, Zubairy MS: Quantum Optics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1997.CrossRef 32. Taflove A, Hagness S: Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method. 3rd edition. Norwood: Artech House; 2005. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions GC proposed the method for the mode volume, performed the numerical simulations, interpreted the simulation results, and drafted the manuscript. J-FL anticipated the derivation of equations and the interpretation of numerical results. HJ anticipated the coding of the numerical programs. X-LZ and Y-CY anticipated the numerical simulations and the interpretation of numerical results. CJ and X-HW conceived the study, proposed the slab thickness tuning approach, and revised the manuscript

substantially. PAK6 All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background TiO2 is the most widely used photocatalyst for effective decomposition of organic compounds in air and water under irradiation of UV light with a shorter wavelength, corresponding to its bandgap energy, due to its relatively high photocatalytic activity, biological and chemical stability, low cost, nontoxic nature, and long-term stability. However, the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 (the bandgap of anatase TiO2 is 3.2 eV which can be excited by photons with wavelengths below 387 nm) is limited to irradiation wavelengths in the UV region [1, 2]. However, only about 3% to 5% of the solar spectrum falls in this UV range. This limits the efficient utilization of solar energy for TiO2.

FliI has a non-conserved N-terminal region (amino acids 1-150) wh

FliI has a non-conserved N-terminal region (amino acids 1-150) which may be important for mediating protein-protein interactions, a catalytic domain (amino acids 150-329), containing a conserved P loop, Walker A and B domains, and a C-terminal non-conserved domain (amino acids 329-434) of unknown function.

FliI has a 34 percent sequence similarity to CdsN, the C. pneumoniae T3S ATPase, and 36 percent similarity with FliI from Salmonella. The active domain of FliI has the most similarity to its paralogs and orthologs, while the N- and C-terminal regions have the lowest amount of similarity (Figure 1). Figure 1 Sequence conservation WH-4-023 order of FliI from C. pneumoniae with C. trachomatis and Salmonella. Sequence alignment (ClustalW) of the full length FliI protein from C. pneumoniae, C. trachomatis, and Salmonella. Asterisk refers to identical amino acids, a double dot refers to a conserved substitution and a single dot refers to a semi-conserved substitution. Outlined is the conserved P loop region in the Walker A domain. FlhA (Cpn0363) is 583 amino acids in length with a predicted molecular mass of 65.6 kDa and a pI of 5.60. The FlhA paralog in C. pneumoniae is the T3S protein CdsV. FlhA has seven predicted transmembrane regions in the N-terminal half of

the protein (FlhA1-308), while the C-terminal half of the protein is predicted to be cytoplasmic (TMpred). FlhA from C. pneumoniae has 21 percent sequence orthology with FlhA from Salmonella. FliF (Cpn0860) Autophagy Compound Library solubility dmso is 342 amino acids in length with a predicted molecular mass of 38.2 kDa and a pI of 9.5. The FliF paralog in C. pneumoniae is the T3S protein CdsJ. FliF has two predicted TM regions, one located near the N-terminus and one located near the C-terminus.

FliF from C. pneumoniae is only 15 percent similar to FliF from Salmonella. Expression and ATPase activity of FliI FliI has significant similarity with many characterized Meloxicam ATPases, and this led us to explore the ATPase activity of this protein. Purified GST tagged FliI was tested for its ability to hydrolyze ATP using the malachite green binding assay. Figure 2A shows that GST-FliI was essentially free of contaminating proteins by SDS-PAGE and anti-GST Western blot (left) or Coomassie blue stain (right). GST-FliI hydrolyzed ATP in a dose- and time-dependant manner at a rate of 0.15 ± .02 μmol min-1 mg-1 (Figure 2B i and ii, diamonds). This level of activity is comparable to other flagellar ATPases as well as the T3S paralog, CdsN [16, 41, 42]. ATPase activity of GST-FliI peaked at 37°C, and at a pH of 8.0 (Figure 2 iii and iv). Another GST-tagged protein, GST-CopN, purified in the same manner as GST-FliI had negligible ATPase activity (Figure 2B i and ii, squares). Figure 2 Expression, purification, and optimal conditions for the time- and dose-dependant ATPase FliI.

All authors read and approved the final manuscript “

All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Intussusceptions was reported for the first time in 1674 by Barbette of Amsterdam [1]. The occurrence of intussusceptions in adults is rare, accounting for less than 5% of all cases of intussusceptions and almost 1%-5% of bowel obstruction [2]. In contrast to pediatric intussusceptions, which is idiopathic in 90% of cases, adult intussusceptions has an www.selleckchem.com/products/z-ietd-fmk.html organic lesion in 70% to 90% of cases [3]. The majority of lipomas

in the small bowel are solitary. Approximately 5% are multiple [4]. Symptomatic lipoma manifestations are hemorrhage or intestinal obstruction. Due to their intramural location, lipomas can also serve as the leading point for intussusceptions. We report a rare case of jejuno-jejunal intussusceptions in an adult secondary to an jejunal lipoma. Case presentation A 35-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department in a tertiary referral hospital with 4 months history of intermittent upper abdominal pain accompanied with nausea. The patient had no past history of peptic ulcer disease, alteration in bowel habits, melena or weight loss. On examination, he was apyrexial Selleckchem CP 690550 and hemodynamically stable. His abdomen was distended and no palpable abdominal masses; bowel sounds were hyper audible. Initial A rectal

examination revealed no masses or blood. Laboratory blood tests were normal. Sinomenine Abdominal radiography revealed prominent dilatation of the small bowel with air fluid levels (Figure  1). Abdominal CT showed a target sign- or sausage-shaped lesion typical of an intussusceptions that varied in appearance relative to the slice axis (Figure  2). The inner central area represented the invigilated intussuscepted, surrounded by its mesenteric fat and associated vasculature, and all surrounded by the thick-walled

intussuscipiens. More head-side scans showed a low-density homogenous mass measuring 4 cm that was considered to be the leading point for the invagination (Figure  3). These findings led to a diagnosis of intussusceptions induced by a tumor most likely begin. The decision was made to undertake an urgent exploratory laparotomy. At laparotomy, 50 cm distal to the ligament of Treitz, a jejuno-jejunal intussusceptions was identified. We conducted a desinvagination Benin saw the character of the lesion on CT. The presence of irreversible ischemia in a small portion of the intussusceptum necessitated segmental resection and primary anastomosis (Figure  4). The postoperative period was uneventful and the patient was discharged on the sixth postoperative day. Gross examination of the respected specimen revealed a round tumor covered with mucosa measuring 6 cm. A microscopic examination revealed fat cells proliferating in the submucosal layer and confirmed the diagnosis of ileal lipoma (Figure  5).

Figure1shows a screenshot of the AmiGO ontology browser at the Ge

Figure1shows a screenshot of the AmiGO ontology browser at the Gene Ontology depicting “”GO: 0012501 programmed cell death”" and its child terms [1]. In addition to the terms describing classes of PCD, the GO contains three other terms, also shown in Figure1, that describe types of PCD regulation: “”GO: 0043067 regulation of programmed cell death”", “”GO: 0043069 negative regulation of programmed cell death”", and “”GO: 0043068

positive regulation of programmed cell death”". Taken together, these terms describing both classes of PCD and regulation of PCD allow for annotations that capture various aspects of PCD as a biological process. Figure 1 “”GO: 0012501 programmed cell death”" and its child terms depicted in a

screenshot of the Gene Ontology AmiGO browser[1]. Transmembrane Transporters inhibitor Most terms shown here below “”GO: 0012501 programmed cell death”" are types of programmed cell www.selleckchem.com/products/CX-6258.html death, symbolized by the logo showing an “”I”" inside a square, which denotes the “”is_a”" relationship. However, three terms (various logos with “”R”") describe the “”regulates”" type of relationship. For more information on ontology structure, including term-term relationships, see [13]. Apoptosis and necrosis Several types of PCD related to defense have been distinguished in the literature, for example apoptosis and the hypersensitive response (HR). Autophagy, a highly conserved PCD pathway related to protein and organelle turnover, Linifanib (ABT-869) also has been implicated in plant innate immunity (reviewed in [14]). Another commonly used but poorly defined term, “”necrosis”", is not included as a term in the GO because it is a phenotype, i.e. post-mortem observation of dead cells, not a process, and the GO does not include terms for describing phenotypes. Necrosis indicates that

cell death has occurred, but not necessarily the process by which it was achieved [15]. There may be some cases where necrosis proceeds as a programmed process, but this is still poorly understood (see Note added in proof). Necrosis exists in the GO only as a synonym of the terms “”GO: 0008219 cell death”", “”GO: 0001906 cell killing”", “”GO: 0019835 cytolysis”", and “”GO: 0012501 programmed cell death”", but its use in describing a process is discouraged without great caution whether or not one is using GO. Similarly, use of the phrase “”necrotic tissue”" is discouraged in describing the results of cell death. “”GO: 0006915 apoptosis”", on the other hand, exists in the GO as it constitutes a well-defined process. Apoptosis includes condensation of chromatin at the nuclear periphery, condensation and vacuolization of the cytoplasm and plasma membrane blebbing, followed by breakdown of the nucleus and fragmentation of the cell to form apoptotic bodies.

J Bacteriol 1994,176(21):6677–6687 PubMed 23 Damkiaer S, Yang L,

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