“To determine the effects of cytosolic CRT on MR-induced M

“To determine the effects of cytosolic CRT on MR-induced MMEC injury, and the underlying mechanism. MMECs were randomized into eight groups: control, AdCRT (infected with pAdCMV/V5-DEST-CRT adenovirus), stCRT (transfected with

rCRT-siRNAs), Mock (transfected with scrambled siRNAs), MR (exposed to MR for six minutes), AdCRT + MR, stCRT + MR, and Mock + MR. The magnitude of cell injury were assessed by Annexin V-PI staining, LDH activity in culture medium, MMEC migration ability, ultrastructure and cytoskeletal stability. Subcellular colocalization of CRT and ConA or integrin were evaluated by immunocytochemistry. The mRNA and Paclitaxel concentration protein expression levels of target genes were examined by qRT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. MR-induced cytotoxicity was dose-dependent.

Overexpression of cytosolic CRT suppressed MR injury, shown as decreased cell apoptosis, reduced LDH activity, enhanced cell migration capability, and maintenance of ultrastructure and cytoskeleton integrity. Conversely, CRT deficiency aggravated MR-induced injury. Exposure of AdCRT MMECs to MR promoted membrane translocation of CRT and the interaction of CRT-integrin-α. Correlation analysis revealed that integrin-α expression or FAK PLX4032 concentration phosphorylation was positively associated with cytosolic CRT expression. Cytosolic CRT inhibits MR-induced MMEC injury through activation of the integrin-FAK pathway. “
“Please cite this paper as: Georgi, Vigilance, Dewar, and Frame (2011). Terminal Arteriolar Network Structure/Function and Plasma Cytokine Levels in db/db and ob/ob Mouse Skeletal Muscle. Microcirculation 18(3), 238–251. Objective:  To investigate the terminal arteriolar network structure and function in relation to circulating plasma cytokine levels in db/db, ob/ob, and their genetic background control, C57/bl6, mice. Methods:  Arteriolar network size and erythrocyte

distribution were observed in the resting cremaster muscle (n = 45, pentobarbital 50 mg/kg i.p.). Structural remodeling and inflammatory state were related to 21 plasma cytokine levels. Results:  db/db networks were shorter, had fewer branches, and smaller diameters than C57/bl6 controls. ob/ob networks were longer, with similar branch numbers, Rutecarpine however with non-uniform diameters. Shunting of erythrocytes to the specific terminal arteriolar branches of the network (functional rarefaction) was prominent in db/db and ob/ob, with further evidence of shunting between networks seen as no flow to 50% of ob/ob arteriolar networks. Conclusions:  Altered levels of plasma cytokines are consistent with structural remodeling seen in db/db, and a pro-inflammatory state for both db/db and ob/ob. Differences in network structure alone predict overall reduced uniform oxygen delivery in db/db or ob/ob. Shunting probably increases heterogeneous oxygen delivery and is strain-dependent.

For instance, purified common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) from HS

For instance, purified common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) from HSV-1-infected mice are biased toward DC differentiation in ex vivo cultures [23]. Similarly, CLPs from mice treated with the TLR9 ligand CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) beta-catenin pathway have a limited ability to generate B-lineage cells, but an augmented competence to generate DCs [23]. Infection studies using TLR-deficient mice have perhaps not surprisingly revealed defects in HSPC mobilization and emergency myelopoiesis. CLPs from TLR-deficient mice, for example, are not primed to become

DCs during HSV-1 infection [23]. Similarly, vaccinia virus infection induces an increase in LKS+ cell numbers, with an associated decrease in common myeloid progenitors (CMPs) and an increase in the number of later stage myeloid precursors and differentiated myeloid cells; these responses

all require MyD88 [24]. Mycobacterial infection also triggers TLR2/MyD88-dependent amplification of the LKS+ population, as well as granulocyte–monocyte progenitors (GMPs), in a murine model [25]. Moreover, we have shown that the BM LKS+ cell population expands rapidly following Candida albicans fungemia in a TLR2-dependent manner [26]. In contrast, Scumpia et al. [27] described that this expansion following bacterial infection occurs in the absence of TLR signaling, although the interpretation of the in vivo results is difficult Quizartinib supplier as MyD88−/− mice are more susceptible to most infections; therefore, possible differences between control and knockout mice during infection may be masked by different tissue invasion by the microorganism. It should be noted that most findings on the expansion of specific cell types, such as LKS positivity following infection, are based on phenotypic characterization, and the phenotype does not necessarily correlate with functionality of HSPCs as stem cells markers are likely to

be affected by infection. For instance, lineage-restricted progenitors, which are normally Sca-1−, have been reported to upregulate Sca-1 expression upon infection and/or inflammation and are then found within the LKS+ fraction, with the consequent reduction of the myeloid progenitor fraction. Therefore, it is important to validate the HSC status postinfection by using multiple phenotypic Etomidate criteria as well as functional studies [5, 28]. TLR-dependent alterations in hematopoiesis during infection could be explained in at least two ways: (i) HSPC expansion could be an indirect effect of cytokines or growth factors produced by differentiated hematopoietic or nonhematopoietic cells detecting microbes, or (ii) microbes or microbial components might directly induce HSPC proliferation. These possibilities are not mutually exclusive, and both could involve TLR-mediated recognition of microbes or microbe-derived ligands. PRR expression by HSPCs and a role for PRRs in emergency myelopoiesis were first reported in 2006. Nagai et al.

“It is important to find biomarkers for autoimmune inflamm

“It is important to find biomarkers for autoimmune inflammation and

demyelination in the CNS to monitor disease status in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). For this purpose, we determined the titers of antibodies (Ab) reacting with native myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-expressing cells to evaluate the disease activity of chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats and the relationship between anti-MOGcme (cell membrane-expressed MOG), Ab titers and clinical and pathological parameters were evaluated. Consequently, we found that elevation Selleckchem Ruxolitinib of anti-MOGcme Ab titers was associated with clinical severity, except for some cases in very late stages and with severe and widespread demyelination but with dominant inflammation. In contrast, antibodies detected by standard ELISA using recombinant MOG were elevated in both symptomatic and asymptomatic rats and were not associated with parameters such as inflammation and demyelination. Longitudinal examination of anti-MOGcme Ab titers in individual rats revealed

that Ab titers accurately reflect disease check details activity. Furthermore, anti-MOGcme Ab titer was not elevated in acute EAE without demyelination. These findings suggest that autoantibodies reacting with native and glycosylated MOG play an important role in the progression of demyelinating diseases and could be biomarkers for monitoring the status of patients with MS. “
“Recurrent seizures without interictal resumption (status epilepticus) have been reported to induce neuronal death in the midline thalamic region that has functional roles in memory and decision-making; however, the pathogenesis underlying status epilepticus-induced thalamic neuronal death is yet to be determined. We performed histological and immunohistochemical studies as well as cerebral Glycogen branching enzyme blood flow measurement using 4.7 tesla magnetic resonance imaging spectrometer on midline thalamic region in Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 75, male, 7 weeks after birth,

body weight 250–300 g) treated with intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid (10 mg/kg) to induce status epilepticus (n = 55) or normal saline solution (n = 20). Histological study using paraffin-embedded specimens revealed neuronal death showing ischemic-like changes and Fluoro-Jade C positivity with calcium deposition in the midline thalamic region of epileptic rats. The distribution of neuronal death was associated with focal loss of immunoreactivity for excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2), stronger immunoreaction for glutamate and increase in number of Iba-1-positive microglial cells showing swollen cytoplasm and long processes. Double immunofluorescence study demonstrated co-expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) within microglial cells, and loss of EAAT2 immunoreactivity in reactive astrocytes.

2 mM each dNTP, 2 5 U Taq, 2 5 μL of BSA (0 1 g/10 mL) and 1 μM f

2 mM each dNTP, 2.5 U Taq, 2.5 μL of BSA (0.1 g/10 mL) and 1 μM for each forward and reverse primer in a total of 50 μL reaction volume was used. A total of 35 cycles, each consisting of 94°C for 45 s, 59°C for 45 s, and 72°C for 1 min, were performed; Venetoclax datasheet an initial hot start at 94°C for 3 mins and a final extension step at 72°C for 7 mins were also included. For the secondary PCR step, the PCR mixture was identical except that a concentration of 1.5 mM MgCl2 was used. A total of 40 cycles, each consisting of 94°C for 30 s, 58°C for 90 s, and 72°C for 2 mins, were performed; an initial hot start at 94°C for 3 mins and a final extension step at 72°C for 7 mins were also included.

PCR products were analyzed on 1% agarose gel and visualized by ethidium bromide

staining. The PCR products were purified using the terminator V3.1 cycle sequencing kit (Applied Biosystems, Foster, CA, USA). Sequences were assembled using the SeqMan program (DNASTAR, USA). The characteristics of study participants are presented as mean and percentage. As appropriate, Student’s t-test was used to compare the means of continuous variables, whereas categorical variables were compared using Fisher’s exact test or Pearson’s Selleck MK1775 X2 test. A logistic model was used to assess any association between potential risk factors and Cryptosporidium spp. infection; P < 0.02 according to univariate analysis was considered significant and is presented with the OR. Wald's test was used to assess the significance of variable associations. Correlations between exposure and outcome that considered possible confounding variables were evaluated by multivariate analysis by means of a logistic regression model. Only variables with P < 0.05 on Wald's test were included in the multivariate model; a backward deletion process was used. Analyses were carried out using computer software SPSS ver.12 (SPSS, USA). For both univariate and multivariate

analyses, associations were considered significant at P < 0.05. We studied 183 immunocompromised patients. Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase Their medical conditions were HIV infection in 47 (25.7%), ALL 43 (23.5%), AML 13 (7.1%), CLL 18 (9.8%), various solid cancers 22 (12%), NHL 11 (6%), post-bone marrow transplant 13 (7.1%) and post-renal transplant 16 (8.7%). One hundred and fifty one patients (82.5%) were male and 32 (17.5%) female. The majority of patients (72.7%) were over 30 years old, non-diarrheic (87%), had CD4 + T-cells counts > 100 cells/mm3 (93.4%) and were urban dwellers (76%). We considered patients had Cryptosporidium infection if their fecal samples contained typical oocysts of 4–6 μm when examined after using a modified acid-fast staining technique. We identified oocysts of Cryptosporidium in the feces of 11 of the 183 patients (6%). Demographic, environmental and clinical characteristics of the studied patients are shown in Table 1. We identified two genotypes, C.parvum and C.hominis, by 18s rRNA gene amplification, sequencing and analysis. We identified C.

Studies on DC subsets in blood and organs in man are vital and li

Studies on DC subsets in blood and organs in man are vital and likely to be demanding. Conventional vaccination” strategies in contrast do not allow precise targeting. Many strategies have been attempted to make such vaccines nevertheless work, for example, through the use of antigen in various formats in conjunction with

novel adjuvants. Recombinant vectors (which may preferentially reach DC) and prime-boost regimens are also explored as approaches to optimization (for review see 22). I would like to address a few items that are of general relevance: (i) A recent alarming finding is that patients treated check details with either Canvaxin™ (made up of three melanoma cell line lysates+BCG) or a GM-2+QS21 vaccine (composed of a ganglioside antigen+saponin as adjuvant) experienced worse clinical outcome than the control arm in large phase III melanoma

trials 23. Immunomonitoring data are currently not available in order to rationalize the negative results (e.g. tolerance induction because of insufficient DC targeting and suboptimal maturation?). These results, however, caution that in case of vaccines, clinically promising phase II data (particularly if based on comparison with historical controls) have to be supplemented by solid immunomonitoring and demonstration of T-cell (not only B-cell) immunogenicity before going on to phase III studies, in order to avoid exacerbating patients’ disease. DC BIBW2992 in vitro vaccination,” i.e. active immunization by adoptive transfer of DC, either enriched/isolated from peripheral blood or generated ex vivo from (CD34+ or more often CD14+) precursors offers the possibility to monitor and address variables crucial for an optimized T-cell immunogenicity, notably aspects of DC biology most relevant for immunogenicity (e.g. DC type, maturation status, migratory

capacity, and antigen loading) as well as important vaccination logistics such as DC number, route, and frequency of vaccination. The first DC vaccination study was published in 1996 and used rare DC isolated directly ex vivo from peripheral blood to immunize B-cell lymphoma patients against their tumor-specific idiotype protein 31. By March 2010, almost 300 papers have Benzatropine been published reporting on 4422 patients treated (not all under Good Clinical Practice (GCP) conditions: primarily melanoma 32, 33 and prostate cancer 34 patients – 1301 and 510 patients, respectively). Most trials employed monocyte-derived DC (MoDC), which were most often generated from monocytes by culture in GM-CSF+IL-4 over approximately 6 days to obtain immature DC, followed by exposure to monocyte-conditioned medium or its mimic (cocktail composed of TNF-α+IL-1β+IL-6+PGE2) for 1–2 days, to yield “cocktail”-matured DC. Short-term culture methods have also been described 35, but appears to be more variable in inducing stably differentiated DC and probably for this reason, have not been explored extensively in trials.

MCs incubated with WT, but not OX40-deficient, Tregs mediated num

MCs incubated with WT, but not OX40-deficient, Tregs mediated numerous and long-lasting interactions and displayed different morphological features lacking the classical signs of exocytosis.

MC degranulation and Ca2+ mobilization upon activation were inhibited by Tregs on a single-cell this website basis, without affecting overall cytokine secretion. Transmission electron microscopy showed ultrastructural evidence of vesicle-mediated secretion reconcilable with the morphological pattern of piecemeal degranulation. Our results suggest that MC morphological and functional changes following MC–Treg interactions can be ascribed to cell–cell contact and represent a transversal, non-species-specific mechanism of immune response regulation. Further research, looking at the molecular composition of this interaction will broaden our understanding of its contribution to immunity. In past decades, it has become widely accepted that the contribution of mast cells (MCs) to immunity goes far beyond their well-known role in allergy. Several lines of evidence highlight an emerging Palbociclib ic50 role

for MCs in numerous stages of both the innate and adaptive immune responses by direct communication with other immune cells 1. Functional interplay between MCs and B cells 2, MCs and both effector T cells 3 and Tregs 4, 5 or MCs and eosinophils 6, 7 have been suggested by studies documenting PAK5 their co-localization not only in peripheral tissue, but also in lymphatic organs during acquired immune responses, including those involved in host defense, autoimmunity and allergic disorders 2, 5. These cell–cell interactions have been shown to be bi-directional, fulfilling mutually regulatory and/or modulatory roles, including influences on cellular processes such as growth, proliferation, activation, migration and Ag presentation 2–5. Beyond the paracrine communication exerted by cytokines, MCs express a wide array of surface molecules that can potentially mediate this cross-talk directly. Recent findings provide mechanistic insight

in support of such observations. It has been reported that MHC class II expression by MCs is strongly induced by Notch signaling and supports effector and regulatory T cell activation 8. MC-mediated Ag presentation also regulates CD8+ T cell proliferation and cell activation 9. Moreover, several classes of co-stimulatory pathways have been identified and characterized for MCs, each able to operate in a specific physiological condition or disease ensuring a highly regulated response 10, 11. It has been shown that direct contact between MCs and effector T cells causes an increase in MC degranulation following high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI) triggering, and a boost of T cell proliferation 12, 13.

1b) The lungs were washed by cannulating the

1b). The lungs were washed by cannulating the Ibrutinib purchase trachea and gently injecting/recovering (3×) 1·0 ml of PBS. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) was centrifuged at 300 g at 4°C for 5 min and the supernatants were stored at −20°C for cytokine analysis. The cell pellet was resuspended in 0·1 ml of 3% bovine serum albumin (BSA) and cells counted using a haemocytometer. The cells were then cytocentrifuged and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for differential

counting based on cell morphology and staining patterns. The means of three independent counts of 100 cells in a randomized field were shown. Following bronchoalveolar lavage, the lungs were fixed with formalin. Serial sagittal sections of whole lung (3–4 µm Y-27632 nmr thick) were cut and stained with Gomori trichome for light microscopy. At least 10 fields were selected randomly and examined. The severity of the inflammatory process in the lungs was scored by two pathologists who were blinded to group identity. The scale varied from 0 to 5 as follows: 0, no inflammation, 1, minimal; 2, mild; 3,

medium; 4, moderate; and 5, marked [35,36]. The EPO assay was performed as described previously [37]. Briefly, a 100-mg sample of tissue from each lung was homogenized in 1·9 ml of PBS and centrifuged at 12 000 g for 10 min. The supernatant was discarded and the erythrocytes were lysed. The samples were centrifuged, the supernatant discarded and the pellet resuspended in 1·9 ml of 0·5% hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide in PBS saline. The samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and centrifuged at 4°C at 12 000 g for 10 min. The supernatant was used for the enzymatic assay. Briefly, o-phenylenediamine (OPD) (10 mg) Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase was dissolved in 5·5 ml distilled water, and then 1·5 ml of OPD solution was added to 8·5 ml of Tris buffer (pH 8·0), followed by addition of 7·5 µl H2O2. In a 96-well plate, 100 µl of substrate solution was added to 50 µl of each sample. After 30 min, the reaction was stopped with 50 µl of 1 M H2SO4 and the absorbance was read at 492 nm. Levels of IL-4, IL-5,

IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ were determined by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of the different groups of mice with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) sandwich technique using commercially available kits (OptEIA; BD Bioscience, San Jose, CA, USA), according to the manufacturer’s protocol. The optical density (OD) values were read at 450 nm. The results were expressed as picograms per millilitre, compared to a standard curve. The levels of OVA-specific IgE in serum were determined by ELISA, as described previously [38,39]. Briefly, Maxisorp 96-well microtitre plates (nunc, Roskilde, Denmark) were coated with rat anti-mouse unlabelled IgE (1 : 250; Southern Biotechnology, AL, USA) in pH 9·6 carbonate-bicarbonate buffer for 12–16 h at 4°C and then blocked for 1 h at room temperature with 200 µl/well of 0·25% PBS-casein.

The choice of antigen format impacts upon the frequency of respon

The choice of antigen format impacts upon the frequency of responding T cells. An islet extract comprises the full spectrum of islet antigens, whereas at the other extreme synthetic peptides comprise one, sometimes two, epitopes [30,31]. Hence, one would expect responses to islet lysates to be detected more readily because a larger pool of potentially responsive T cells is present in the blood. However, tissue extracts are susceptible to protease digestion Kinase Inhibitor Library and other modifications that may alter the immunogenicity of the tissue. Furthermore, the composition of tissue extracts cannot be defined in the same ways as peptides or recombinant

proteins. Recombinant protein preparations can vary in quality and purity, and these changes can impact upon T cell responses [32]. Synthetic peptides have also selleck kinase inhibitor been reported to give misleading results. Attempts to detect CD8+ T cell responses to proinsulin-derived peptides lead to CD4+ T cell responses against a minor (<5%) peptide contaminant [33]. Responses to other peptide contaminants

have been described in attempts to detect T cell responses to other autoimmune diseases [34]. Given the low frequency of antigen-specific T cells, assays designed to measure islet autoantigen-specific T cell function are particularly susceptible to the technical problems outlined above. The solution is to use the appropriate controls to demonstrate the islet antigen specificity

of the T cell responses being measured, and thorough testing with samples from individuals with and without T1D, Farnesyltransferase to demonstrate disease specificity. Broadly, current assays for measuring islet antigen-specific T cell responses measure cytokine production, T cell proliferation or the frequency of epitope-specific T cells using HLA-peptide multimers with or without in vitro expansion. Examples of each type of assay, their strengths and weaknesses, are discussed below. While we have highlighted published assays with which the authors have direct experience, it should be noted that there are many variations on each assay format. Furthermore, description of an assay here does not imply that it is, in some way, endorsed by the Immunology of Diabetes Society (IDS). At this point ‘head-to-head’ comparisons of the different assays are beginning to be published, but it is not clear [35] which assay, if any, is the ‘best’ assay. Indeed, the most appropriate assay may differ depending upon the aim of the analysis. For example, the best assays for detecting islet antigen-specific T cell responses in the blood of people at risk of T1D may not be the most appropriate assay for monitoring changes in epitope-specific T cell function following antigen-based therapy. Clearly, much work is required before there is sufficient evidence to promote one assay above any other. Background.

B10 2) (all: Santa Cruz), rabbit polyclonal α-plexA1 or -A4 (Abca

B10.2) (all: Santa Cruz), rabbit polyclonal α-plexA1 or -A4 (Abcam), mouse α-VSV-G (Sigma), mouse α-MV H protein (K83, produced in our laboratory) and mouse α-NP-1 (clone AD5-17F6, Miltenyi). For double stainings with mouse monoclonal antibodies, α-NP-1 was directly conjugated according to the manufacturer’s protocol (Zenon, Molecular Probes/Invitrogen). After final washing steps in PBS, fluorochrome G (Southern Biotech, Eching, Germany) was used as the mounting medium and cells

were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (Laser Scan Microscope, LSM510 Meta, Software version 3.0; Axiovert 200 microscope, objective: 100×; NA=1.4 Plan Apochromat). T cells were nucleofected with 2 μg plasmid encoding for DN-plexA1 (kindly provided by L. Tamagnone, Milano) 54 following the manufacturer’s protocol (Amaxa). For silencing of plexA1, human T cells were transfected with a two-day interval according selleck chemicals to the manufacturer’s protocol (DharmaFECT, Thermal Scientific) with 100 nM siRNA targeting 3-deazaneplanocin A ic50 plexA1 (Santa Cruz) or, for control, a scrambled siRNA (Sigma). Before cells were recruited into

the respective experiments, aliquots were harvested for nucleic acid extraction (Qiagen, RNAeasy Kit) and subsequent RT-PCR analyses. Forward 5′-ctgctggtcatcgtggctgtgct and reverse 5′-gggcccttctccatctgctgcttga primers were used for specific amplification of plexA1. Signals obtained Avelestat (AZD9668) after electrophoresis were digitalized and quantified using the AIDA software program (Raytest, Straubenhardt, Germany). Supernatants of DC or DC/T-cell co-cultures were harvested at the time intervals indicated and immunoprecipitated using 2 μg/mL rabbit polyclonal anti-SEMA3A antibody (H300, Santa Cruz). Immune complexes were washed in PBS containing 0.5 M LiCl and 1% v/v Triton X100, and analyzed by Western blot using an anti-SEMA3A mAb (R&D Systems) followed by an anti-mouse HRP-conjugated antibody (Dianova, Hamburg, Germany). Signals obtained after ECL development

were digitalized and quantified (recombinant SEMA3A-Fc was included for reference) using the AIDA software program. For conjugate analyses, DC were labelled with 1 μM R18 dye for 20 min and T cells with 1 μM CSFE (both: Invitrogen) for 5 min (each in RPMI-5% FBS at 37°C). DC and T cells (exposed to SEMA3A/6A or human IgG (150 ng/mL each) for 15 min at 37°C) were co-cultured directly in an FACS tube for the time intervals indicated, fixed with PFA (final concentration of 2% w/v in PBS), washed once with FACS buffer (low-speed centrifugation (400 rpm)) and subsequently analyzed by flow cytometry. The double-positive population representing conjugates was determined, and percentages were calculated using one sample t-test with hypothetical value set as 100 for the IgG-treated controls. Under-agarose assays were performed as described elsewhere 41. Briefly, 2.

L-3 expressed on AP-61 cells may be involved in

the inter

L-3 expressed on AP-61 cells may be involved in

the interaction with DENV. Seppo et al. found two GSLs, zwitterionic and acidic GSLs, in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo (21). However, PD0325901 chemical structure they could not detect Nz3, which is similar to L-3. Moreover, nLc4Cer has not so far been detected in neutral GSLs of AP-61 cells. Since insect cells do not contain β-N-acetylgalactosaminyl-transferase, which produces Gal β-(22, 23), it can be deduced that nLc4Cer will not be found in these cells. In comparing the GSLs that can bind to dengue virus on TLC plates, the β-GlcNAc residue was noted to have a similar carbohydrate moiety to those of L-3 and nLc4Cer. A previous study reported that β-HexNAc is important in the process of DENV binding to host cells (7). The core structure of two DENV-2-binding

GSLs, L-3 and nLc4Cer, which are predominantly found in GSLs, is different from those of N- and O-linked glycoproteins. The see more host range of DENV is restricted to only humans and mosquitoes. Since DENV is propagated in mosquitoes and characteristically transmitted to humans, GSLs such as L-3and nLc4Cer may play important roles in virus transmission. This paper was supported and funded by Mahidol University and a Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization/Regional Tropical Medicine and Public Health scholarship. Part of this work was supported by Core Research and Technology (Japan Science and Technology Agency), Japan and the Department of Virology, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Thailand. “
“Transplantation is a successful treatment for end-stage organ failure. Despite improvements in short-term outcome, long-term survival remains suboptimal because of the morbidity and mortality associated with long-term use of immunosuppression. There is, therefore, a pressing need to devise protocols that induce tolerance in order to minimize or completely withdraw immunosuppression in transplant recipients. In this review we will discuss how regulatory

T cells (Tregs) came to be recognized as an attractive way to promote transplantation tolerance. We will summarize the preclinical data, supporting the importance GNE-0877 of these cells in the induction and maintenance of immune tolerance and that provide the rationale for the isolation and expansion of these cells for cellular therapy. We will also describe the data from the first clinical trials, using Tregs to inhibit graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and will address both the challenges and opportunities in human Treg cell therapy. Other Articles Published in this Series T cell depletion in paediatric stem cell transplantation. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 2013, 172: 139–47. Tolerogenic dendritic cell therapy for rheumatoid arthritis: where are we now? Clinical and Experimental Immunology 2013, 172: 148–57.