“To determine the effects of cytosolic CRT on MR-induced MMEC injury, and the underlying mechanism. MMECs were randomized into eight groups: control, AdCRT (infected with pAdCMV/V5-DEST-CRT adenovirus), stCRT (transfected with
rCRT-siRNAs), Mock (transfected with scrambled siRNAs), MR (exposed to MR for six minutes), AdCRT + MR, stCRT + MR, and Mock + MR. The magnitude of cell injury were assessed by Annexin V-PI staining, LDH activity in culture medium, MMEC migration ability, ultrastructure and cytoskeletal stability. Subcellular colocalization of CRT and ConA or integrin were evaluated by immunocytochemistry. The mRNA and Paclitaxel concentration protein expression levels of target genes were examined by qRT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. MR-induced cytotoxicity was dose-dependent.
Overexpression of cytosolic CRT suppressed MR injury, shown as decreased cell apoptosis, reduced LDH activity, enhanced cell migration capability, and maintenance of ultrastructure and cytoskeleton integrity. Conversely, CRT deficiency aggravated MR-induced injury. Exposure of AdCRT MMECs to MR promoted membrane translocation of CRT and the interaction of CRT-integrin-α. Correlation analysis revealed that integrin-α expression or FAK PLX4032 concentration phosphorylation was positively associated with cytosolic CRT expression. Cytosolic CRT inhibits MR-induced MMEC injury through activation of the integrin-FAK pathway. “
“Please cite this paper as: Georgi, Vigilance, Dewar, and Frame (2011). Terminal Arteriolar Network Structure/Function and Plasma Cytokine Levels in db/db and ob/ob Mouse Skeletal Muscle. Microcirculation 18(3), 238–251. Objective: To investigate the terminal arteriolar network structure and function in relation to circulating plasma cytokine levels in db/db, ob/ob, and their genetic background control, C57/bl6, mice. Methods: Arteriolar network size and erythrocyte
distribution were observed in the resting cremaster muscle (n = 45, pentobarbital 50 mg/kg i.p.). Structural remodeling and inflammatory state were related to 21 plasma cytokine levels. Results: db/db networks were shorter, had fewer branches, and smaller diameters than C57/bl6 controls. ob/ob networks were longer, with similar branch numbers, Rutecarpine however with non-uniform diameters. Shunting of erythrocytes to the specific terminal arteriolar branches of the network (functional rarefaction) was prominent in db/db and ob/ob, with further evidence of shunting between networks seen as no flow to 50% of ob/ob arteriolar networks. Conclusions: Altered levels of plasma cytokines are consistent with structural remodeling seen in db/db, and a pro-inflammatory state for both db/db and ob/ob. Differences in network structure alone predict overall reduced uniform oxygen delivery in db/db or ob/ob. Shunting probably increases heterogeneous oxygen delivery and is strain-dependent.