SNP detection indicated that there were four haplotypes in the hi

SNP detection indicated that there were four haplotypes in the hina genes of 92 barley cultivars, and haplotype 01 and 02 were shared buy AL3818 by 68 and 14 cultivars, respectively, suggesting that there was a very limited diversity in hina genes among North American barley cultivars.

Despite the wide range in hardness exists in 92 barley cultivars, however, unlike wheat, where a clear relationship has been demonstrated between a number of SNPs in the wheat hardness genes and quality (soft or hard wheat), there was no such relationship for barley. The genotypes used in this study demonstrated that there was a low level of polymorphism in hina gene in North American barley cultivars and these polymorphisms had no impact on grain hardness.”
“In this investigation, morphological, phytochemical and ISSR markers were used to estimate the relationships among and within seven populations

of white savory (Satureja mutica), belonging to four provinces in Iran. The individuals were phenotypically diverse, which stamen length, corolla length, selleckchem corolla diameter, calyx length, bract length, inflorescence length, calyx length and bracteole width were characteristics with the highest variation. Leaf dimensions were in significant correlation with flower and inflorescence characteristics. Chemical compounds of essential oils were found variable in various individuals and all samples were principally composed of phenolic constituents (carvacrol and/or thymol). As a consequence, the plants were classified into two major chemotypes including carvacrol and thymol. A total of 197 band positions were produced by 14 ISSR primers, of which 176 were found polymorphic with 88.91% polymorphism. ISSR genetic similarity check details values among individuals ranged between 0.45 and 0.94 which was indicative of a high level of genetic variation.

Multiple regression analysis (MRA) revealed that phytochemical compositions as dependent variable, showed statistically significant correlation and in association with leaf and flower traits as independent variable, indicating a main role of leaf and flower on production of these compounds. Also, several ISSR fragments were found associated with some morphological traits and phytochemical compositions. The high diversity within and among populations of S. mutica according to different data systems could provide useful information for conservation and selection of cross-parents in breeding programs. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: It is important to determine the concentrations of essential and non-essential metals in fish for human health.

However, at 72 hours accumulation of 125I-LDL was similar in ApoE

However, at 72 hours accumulation of 125I-LDL was similar in ApoE0/Hspg2(Delta 3/Delta 3) and ApoE0 mice. Immunohistochemistry of lesions from ApoE0/Hspg2(Delta 3/Delta 3) mice showed decreased staining for apoB and increased smooth muscle alpha-actin content, whereas Blebbistatin Transmembrane Transporters inhibitor accumulation of CD68-positive inflammatory cells was unchanged. We conclude that the perlecan HS chains are proatherogenic in mice, possibly through increased lipoprotein retention, altered vascular permeability, or other mechanisms. The ability of HS to inhibit smooth muscle cell growth may also influence development as well

as instability of lesions.”
“Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can provide excellent mechanical circulatory support (MCS). Some case reports use ECMO to rescue heart transplantation (HTx) recipients with posttransplant cardiopulmonary failure. Herein reported a series of use of ECMO to rescue HTx recipients with refractory cardiopulmonary failure have during the posttransplant period. The causes of cardiopulmonary

failure were right ventricular failure, primary graft failure, acute rejection, or sepsis. A retrospective review of 366 consecutive HTx recipients revealed 40 cases of cardiopulmonary GS-1101 manufacturer failure requiring ECMO rescue in the posttransplant period. There were 14 patients diagnosed as right ventricular cardiopulmonary failure; 7 primary graft failure with a stunned donors myocardium, 8 as acute cellular or Immoral rejection, and 11 as sepsis with positive blood cultures. ECMO-related variables were evaluated for association with

mortality. The HTx recipients included 35 males and 5 females with overall median age of 42.3 years (range, 0.48-65.22). The weaning rate was 72.5% (29/40) and survival, 52.5% (21/40). ECMO provided 3-deazaneplanocin A molecular weight temporary MCS rescuing some HTx recipients with posttransplant cardiopulmonary failure. None of the patients receiving ECMO support for >4 days survived.”
“This paper presents a multi-method research project to develop a conceptual framework for measuring outcomes in studies of osteoporotic kyphosis. The research involved literature research and qualitative interviews among clinicians who treat patients with kyphosis and among patients with the condition.\n\nKyphosis due to at least one vertebral compression fracture is prevalent among osteoporotic patients, resulting in well-documented symptoms and impact on functioning and well-being. A three-part study led to development of a conceptual measurement framework for comprehensive assessment of symptoms, impact, and treatment benefit for kyphosis.\n\nA literature-based disease model (DM) was developed and tested with physicians (n = 10) and patients (n = 10), and FDA guidelines were used to develop a final disease model and a conceptual framework.

10 to 0 44 m/h in order to establish an experimental protocol sui

10 to 0.44 m/h in order to establish an experimental protocol suitable for the start-up of this type of reactors. Total (100%) nitrate reduction was achieved in the UASB reactors with and without zeolite on the 7th and 11th days, respectively, of the second stage of the start-up period, showing

the suitability of the use of this material in this type of reactors. Finally, a third study carried out with both UASB reactors operating in continuous mode at a high organic loading rate (44 kg COD/m(3) d) and a very low HRT (2.5 h) revealed that the reactor with zeolite achieved a nitrate removal efficiency of 92.4% at a nitrogen load of 6.42 kg NO3-/(m(3) d). This last study also demonstrated the robustness of the UASB reactor selleck screening library with zeolite under nitrate load variations. (C) 2014 Elsevier By. All rights reserved.”
“OBJECTIVE To determine if 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Europeans are also associated with T2DM in South Asians and Latinos and if they can add to the prediction of incident T2DM in a high-risk population.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In the EpiDREAM prospective cohort study, physical measures, questionnaires, and blood samples were collected from 25,063 individuals at risk for dysglycemia. Sixteen SNPs that have been robustly associated with T2DM in Europeans were genotyped. Among 15,466 Selleck MX69 European, South

Asian, and Latino subjects, we examined buy Pevonedistat the association of these 16 SNPs alone and combined in a gene score with incident cases of T2DM (n = 1,016) that developed during 3.3 years of follow-up.RESULTS Nine of

the 16 SNPs were significantly associated with T2DM, and their direction of effect was consistent across the three ethnic groups. The gene score was significantly higher among subjects who developed incident T2DM (cases vs. noncases: 16.47 [2.50] vs. 15.99 [2.56]; P = 0.00001). The gene score remained an independent predictor of incident T2DM, with an odds ratio of 1.08 (95% CI 1.05-1.11) per additional risk allele after adjustment for T2DM risk factors. The gene score in those with no family history of T2DM was 16.02, whereas it was 16.19 in those with one parent with T2DM and it was 16.32 in those with two parents with T2DM (P trend = 0.0004). The C statistic of T2DM risk factors was 0.708 (0.691-0.725) and increased only marginally to 0.714 (0.698-0.731) with the addition of the gene score (P for C statistic change = 0.0052).CONCLUSIONS T2DM genetic associations are generally consistent across ethnic groups, and a gene score only adds marginal information to clinical factors for T2DM prediction.”
“Background: Given that acne is a rare condition in societies with higher consumption of omega-3 (n-3) relative to omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids, supplementation with n-3 may suppress inflammatory cytokine production and thereby reduce acne severity.

The diagnosis of DCRV should be considered in the young patient w

The diagnosis of DCRV should be considered in the young patient with an elevated right ventricular systolic pressure and intracavitary gradient. Echocardiography and cardiac MRI are the principal diagnostic tools for the assessment of DCRV. This entity is often misdiagnosed Daporinad in vitro as pulmonary

hypertension in the young patient, and can often go overlooked and untreated for many years. Definitive therapy involves surgical resection of the muscle bundle. This can often be curative and if done in a timely fashion, may prevent right ventricular remodeling. We describe the unique diagnostic dilemma, the course and management of a young adult with DCRV during pregnancy.”
“Prunus mira Koehne ex Sargent (syn. Persica mira (Koehne) Kov. et Kostina), native to China, is an excellent fruit tree due to its high ecological and economical value. However, there is limited knowledge on the genetic information of P. mira. In this study, the genetic relationships of 83 P. mira accessions from five populations were assessed using amplified fragment

length polymorphism (AFLP). The results showed that AFLP was a powerful tool to detect levels of genetic diversity of natural populations in P. mira. The similarity coefficient between accessions ranged from 0.12 to 0.76, with an average 0.57. 83 accessions were clustered into two major clusters at similarity coefficient of 0.225. The highest values of N (e), H and I occurred in ML population. Most of the genetic A-1210477 price variations occur

within population. There is no close relationship between geographic distance and genetic distance. At the same time, ex situ conservation needs to be established for P. mira.”
“Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the colon. During inflammation, NF-kappa B is increased in colonic epithelial cells and in immune cells, leading to increases in proinflammatory cytokines. These events then increase DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), which silence a subset of tumor suppressor genes by promoter methylation. Negative regulators of the Wnt pathway are frequently methylated in UC, leading to dysregulation of the pathway and, selleck products potentially, to colorectal cancer. We determined if black raspberries (BRBs) influence promoter methylation of suppressors in the Wnt pathway in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced UC. C57BL/6J mice received 1% DSS and were fed either control or 5% BRB diets. Mice were euthanized on days 7, 14 and 28, and their colons, spleen and bone marrow were collected. Berries reduced ulceration at day 28. This was accompanied by decreased staining of macrophages and neutrophils and decreased NF-kappa B p65 nuclear localization in the colon at all time points. At day 7, BRBs demethylated the promoter of dkk3, leading to its increased messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in colon, spleen and bone marrow.

Results: Between April and July 2011, a total of 13 evaluable

\n\nResults: Between April and July 2011, a total of 13 evaluable patients were included (mean age, 40.7 +/- 3.1 years; female, 100%; white, 100%; mean MS duration, 10.1 +/- 2.3 years; previous MS treatment, 46.2%; mean glatiramer acetate treatment duration, 27.3 +/- 9.5 months). Eleven patients (84.6%) showed local indurations (mean diameter, 3.4 +/- 0.5 cm; mean number, 9.0 +/- 1.0) selleckchem and six patients (46.2%) areas of panniculitis/lipoatrophy (mean

number, 5.0 +/- 1.1). After 12 endermology sessions, patients with indurations reported having experienced a reduction in size (10 patients [90.9%]; mean diameter, 0.1 +/- 0.05 cm; P<0.001) and number of indurations (nine patients [81.8%]; mean number, 2.3 +/- 1.1; P<0.005). These indurations completely disappeared from arms, thighs, buttocks, and abdomen in six (75.0%), six (75.0%), two (50.0%), and three (42.9%) patients, respectively. Three of these patients (27.3%) recovered from all indurations. Although panniculitis/lipoatrophy did not completely disappear, all patients reported improvements. Most patients AZD8931 price with indurations (63.6%) felt very satisfied and considered endermology very useful for reducing indurations. All patients with panniculitis/lipoatrophy were satisfied and considered to be endermology useful in improving it. In addition,

endermology enabled glatiramer acetate tolerance to be improved in most patients (60.0%).\n\nConclusion: Endermology may contribute to improving indurations and panniculitis/lipoatrophy at the site of Combretastatin A4 order subcutaneous injection

of glatiramer acetate in patients with MS, enabling areas of injection to recover, and treatment tolerance to increase.”
“Background: The purposes of the present study were morphometric characterization of rostellar hooks of Taenia multiceps and to investigate the association of hook length variation and the variability within two mitochondrial genes of sheep isolates of the parasite.\n\nMethods: Up to 4500 sheep brains were examined for the presence of C. cerebralis. Biometric characters based on the larval rostellar hook size were measured for each individual isolate. Representative mitochondrial CO1 and 12S rRNA gene sequences for each of the isolates were obtained from NCBI GenBank. Morphometric and genetic data were analyzed using cluster analysis, Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and random effects model.\n\nResults: One hundred and fourteen sheep (2.5%) were found infected with the coenuri. The minimum and maximum number of scoleces per cyst was 40 and 550 respectively. Each scolex contained 22-27 hooks arranged in two rows of large and small hooks. The average total length of the large and small hooks was 158.9 and 112.1 mu m, respectively. Using ICC, statistically significant clusters of different hook sizes were identified within the isolates.

“Objective: To systematically review evidence on the preve

“Objective: To systematically review evidence on the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers in those with a spinal cord injury (SCI).\n\nData Sources: For this evidence-based review, the following data sources were used: MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and PsycINFO.\n\nStudy Selection: To be selected for inclusion in the current review, there had to have been an intervention, studies had to have 3 or more subjects, and 50% or more of the participating group had to have an SCI.\n\nData Extraction: Data extracted included study design, subject

demographics, inclusion and exclusion criteria, study type, IPI145 sample size, outcome measures used, and study results.\n\nData Synthesis: Articles selected for

this review were organized-into 1 of 2 categories: prevention or treatment. Within each broad category, several smaller ones were created, and articles were grouped according to the prevention (direct or indirect) or treatment intervention discussed.\n\nConclusions: Of the 26 articles selected for inclusion in the systematic review, 7 were randomized controlled trials (RCTS) that dealt with treatment for pressure ulcers, and there was 1 RCT on prevention. Despite the cost-effectiveness of prevention, little research exists on preventative interventions, and what does exist is mostly level 4 evidence. More research is needed for both prevention and treatment, but especially the former.”
“Three new aconitine-type C-19-diterpenoid alkaloids, Batimastat manufacturer taipeinines A-C (1-3), were isolated from the roots of Aconitum taipaicum. The chemical structures of these three compounds were established as (1,6,8,14,16)-20-ethyl-8,14-dihydroxy-1,6,16-trimethoxy-4-(methoxymethyl)-aconitane (1), (1,6,8,14,16)-20-ethyl-8,14-dihydroxy-1,6,16-trimethoxy-4-(methoxymethyl)-aconitane (2) and (1,6,8,14,16)-20-ethyl-1,8,14-trihydroxy-6,16-dimethoxy-4-(methoxymethyl)-aconitane

(3), respectively, on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, mainly MS, 1D and 2D NMR. Autophagy Compound Library purchase The cytotoxic activities of these compounds were also assayed, and the results were quite impressive.”
“A stable microbial consortium, separated from a refinery wastewater sample, was able to utilize carbazole as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy, and liberated ammonia from excess nitrogen. Two bacterial strains (NCY and NCW) were isolated from the microbial consortium using a nutrient agar plate. Based on the 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the two bacteria were identified as Chryseobacterium sp. NCY and Achromobacter sp. NCW, respectively. No intermediates of carbazole degradation were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. The substrate specificity assay showed that the consortium could utilize compounds similar to carbazole, such as phenanthrene, naphthalene, and imidazole. Neither the pure strain NCY nor NCW could degrade carbazole after domestication for several times.

01) In the ears with COM, the width and height on average seemed

01). In the ears with COM, the width and height on average seemed larger than normal, but no significant difference was verified. The vertical axis of the tympanic ring was unaffected by the diseases.\n\nConclusion: CT imaging of the en face view of the Ps orifice obtained by the present method is useful as an objective measure to assess bone destruction at the Ps orifice, a scutum

defect, in ears with COM and attic cholesteatoma.”
“The hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are used extensively in the treatment of dyslipidemia, and for the prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease and stroke. They have also demonstrated a benefit in a variety of other disease processes through their non-lipid lowering properties, known as pleiotropic effects. Our paper serves as a focused and updated discussion of the pleiotropic Copanlisib solubility dmso effects of statins in gastrointestinal disorders.”
“Fibrillins are extracellular, disulphide-rich glycoproteins that form 10-12 nm diameter microfibrils in connective tissues. They are found in the majority of higher animals, from jellyfish to humans. Fibrillin microfibrils confer properties of elasticity and strength on connective tissue and regulate growth factor availability in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Mutations in FBN1, the human

gene encoding the fibrillin-1 isoform, are linked to several inherited connective tissue disorders. The fibrillin-1 N-terminus forms many functionally-important interactions, Combretastatin A4 cost both with other fibrillin molecules and various ECM components. In particular, the first

four domains, the fibrillin unique N-terminal (FUN) and three epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains (FUN-EGF3), are implicated in microfibril assembly and growth factor sequestration. The structure of these domains, which comprise 134 residues, is unknown. We have produced a recombinant fragment corresponding to this region of human fibrillin-1. Here, we report H-1, C-13 and N-15 resonance assignments of the FUN-EGF3 fragment. Assignments will check details facilitate structure determination, analysis of interdomain dynamics and the mapping of interaction surfaces.”
“Graphene and few-layer graphene have been synthesized from expanded graphite under microwave irradiations in an aqueous ammonia solution. Yields as high as 8% have been obtained taking into account the precursor weight. The particle size is typically comprised between 0.2 and 0.5 mm with a graphene layer number not exceeding ten. Films have been realized by spin coating and their electrical conductivity strongly depends on the number of oxygenated groups, probably located at the edge of the graphene sheets. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Amino acid sequence alignments and domain/motif structure analyse

Amino acid sequence alignments and domain/motif structure analyses reveal that most of the components of ESCRT, retromer, CORVET, HOPS, GARP, and P13K-III are evolutionarily conserved across yeast, insects, and humans. However, in contrast to the VPS gene expansions observed in the human genome, only four VPS genes (VPS13, VPS16,

VPS33, and VP537) were expanded in the six insect Orders. Additionally, VPS2 was expanded only in species from Phthiraptera, Lepidoptera, and Coleoptera. These studies provide a baseline for understanding Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor the evolution of vesicular trafficking across yeast, insect, and human genomes, and also provide a basis for further addressing specific functional roles of VPS proteins in insects. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Resistance of transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in post-ischemic heart is limited by their poor vitality. Vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-A (VEGF-A) as such or slowly released by fibronectin-coated pharmacologically-active-microcarriers (FN-PAM-VEGF) could differently affect survival kinases and anti-apoptotic mediator (e.g. Bcl-2). Therefore VEGF-A or FN-PAM-VEGF could differently enhance cell proliferation, and/or resistance to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) of MSCs.

To test these hypotheses MSCs were incubated for 6-days with VEGF-A selleck chemicals llc alone or with FN-PAM-VEGF. In addition, MSCs pre-treated for 24-hrs with VEGF-A or FN-PAM-VEGF were subsequently exposed to H/R (72-hrs 3% O2 and 3-hrs of reoxygenation). Cell-proliferation and post-hypoxic vitality were determined. Kinases were studied at 30-min., 1- and 3-days of treatment. Cell-proliferation increased about twofold (P<0.01) 6-days after VEGF-A treatment, but by a lesser extent (55% increase) with FN-PAM-VEGF (P<0.05). While MSC pre-treatment

with VEGF-A confirmed cell-proliferation, pre-treatment with FN-PAM-VEGF protected MSCs against H/R. In the early phase of treatments, VEGF-A increased phospho-Akt, phospho-ERK-1/2 and phospho-PKC epsilon compared to the untreated cells or FN-PAM-VEGF. Afterword, kinase phosphorylations were higher with VGEF, except for ERK-1/2, which was similarly buy AZD1480 increased by both treatments at 3days. Only FN-PAM-VEGF significantly increased Bcl-2 levels. After H/R, lactate dehydrogenase release and cleaved Caspase-3 levels were mainly reduced by FN-PAM-VEGF. While VEGF-A enhances MSC proliferation in normoxia, FN-PAM-VEGF mainly hampers post-hypoxic MSC death. These different effects underscore the necessity of approaches suited to the various conditions. The use of FN-PAM-VEGF could be considered as a novel approach for enhancing MSC survival and regeneration in hostile environment of post-ischemic tissues.”
“Purpose: The relation between sleep and nocturnal enuresis has been an area of discussion for many years. Children with enuresis are generally believed to have sleep that is too deep with decreased arousability.

The correlation analysis revealed that the apolipoprotein (apo) A

The correlation analysis revealed that the apolipoprotein (apo) A-I levels were positively and significantly with all HDL subclasses contents; plasma total cholesterol

(TC) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels were inversely associated with HDL2a, and HDL2b. Moreover, the FPG levels were positively related to HDL3c, HDL3b, and HDL3a in ACS patients. GSK2118436 research buy Conclusion: The HDL subclass distribution profile remodeling was noted in the patients with ACS. Plasma lipoprotein and FPG levels, BP, and BMI play an important role in the HDL subclass metabolism disorder for patients with ACS. The HDL subclass distribution phenotype might be useful as a novel biomarker to assist in the risk stratification of patients with ACS.”
“Genomic information about Clostridium tetani, the causative agent of the tetanus disease, is scarce. The genome of strain E88, a strain used vaccine production, was sequenced about 10 years ago. One additional

genome (strain 12124569) has recently been released. Here we three new genomes of C. tetani and describe major differences among all five C. tetani genomes. They all harbor plasmids that contain highly conserved genes for TeNT (tetanus toxin), TetR (transcriptional regulator of TeNT) and ColT (collagenase), substantially selleck inhibitor differ in other plasmid regions. The chromosomes share a large core genome that contains about 85% of all genes of a chromosome. The non-core chromosome comprises mainly prophage-like genomic regions and genes encoding

environmental interaction defense functions (e.g. surface proteins, restriction-modification systems, toxin-antitoxin systems, CRISPR/Cas systems) and other functions (e.g. transport systems, metabolic activities). This new genome information will help to assess the level of genome plasticity of species C. tetani and provide the basis for detailed comparative studies. (C) 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Secondary hemorrhage after thrombolysis in ischemic stroke is an important complication, which has been difficult to study in preclinical disease models. We have established and characterized a model of learn more thromboembolic middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Advantages of this model include a very low rate of spontaneous recanalization and good reperfusion after intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). In vivo T2* MR imaging and postmortem assays were used for quantification of secondary brain hemorrhage. In our protocol, 12 thrombin-induced autologous blood clots are injected into the internal carotid artery. No spontaneous reperfusion occurs in the first 24 h. However, injection of rt-PA 2 or 4 h thereafter leads to reperfusion of the MCA territory consistent infarcts, increased blood-brain barrier permeability, and secondary hemorrhage.

“Purpose of reviewWith rapidly growing deceased donor

“Purpose of review\n\nWith rapidly growing deceased donor kidney transplant waiting lists, solutions to the shortage of kidney donors need to come from many corners.

This review focuses on the current results and upcoming medications JAK inhibitor that will allow broad expansion of ABO-incompatible transplantation as one facet to combat this issue.\n\nRecent findings\n\nOutcomes of ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation are comparable to standard living donor transplantation but carry a significant, early risk of antibody-mediated rejection. Reducing this early rejection risk will be critical for a broader adaption of incompatible transplants. Improvements in the measurement of isohemagglutinin antibodies with less variability, will reduce patient risk. The anti-CD20 antibody rituximab has replaced splenectomy at most centers with equivalent outcomes, eliminating the need for additional surgical intervention. Studies of complement inhibitors have CDK activation proven effective in treating antibody-mediated rejection in animal models and

human studies are currently ongoing. Studies in xenotransplantation show that blood group carbohydrate antigens can be effectively removed ex vivo prior to implantation. Ongoing studies of accomodation in animal models are finding protective changes in endothelial cells and the immune system that could become targets for pharmacologic manipulation.\n\nSummary\n\nImprovements that reduce risk of early rejection and its long-term sequelae will allow ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation to be adopted broadly along with paired kidney exchange programs, to address the donor organ shortage.”
“The aim of this study was to investigate the root and canal morphology of maxillary first and second premolars in Indians by

a modified canal staining and tooth clearing technique. PR-171 purchase Maxillary first (350) and second (350) premolars were collected, and the morphology and number of roots analyzed. After cleaning, the teeth were immersed in India ink and placed in a hyperbaric oxygen chamber at 0.6 MPa for 2 h. The teeth were then demineralized and cleared. Digital images of the teeth were examined under magnification to evaluate the number of root canals, root canal system configurations, number of apical foramina, and intercanal communications. Root canal configurations were identified based on Vertucci’s classification and Gulabivala’s additional classes. The most common root morphology of the first premolars was the classical two separate root morphology (a Caucasian trait) and that of the second premolars was a single-root morphology (a Mongoloid trait), though other morphologies such as singlerooted first premolars and three-rooted first and second premolars were also identified. A “radiculous” first premolar was identified in two samples.