The highly focal BOLD activation in this patient suggests that cortex hyperexcitability might be limited to the sensorimotor cortex in PME. The combined EEG-fMRI findings highlight a dissociation between BOLD activation and neurophysiological findings. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“LncRNAH19 has been implicated as having both oncogenic and tumor suppression properties in cancer. LncRNAH19 transcripts also serve as a precursor for miR-675. However, it is unknown whether LncRNAH19 and miR-675 are involved in the migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of LncRNAH19 and miR-675
on migration and invasion of HCC cells. The migration and invasion of HCC cells were measured by Transwell migration and invasion assays after Ruboxistaurin mw transfection of HCC cells with miR-675 inhibitors and LncRNAH19siRNA. The levels of LncRNAH19 and miR-675 were detected
by quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and the protein expression of AKT, GSK-3 beta and Cdc25A by Western blotting analysis. The expression levels of 5-Fluoracil nmr LncRNAH19 and miR-675 were higher in MHCC-97H cells than in L02, Huh-7 and HepG2 cells. Transwell migration assay revealed that the miR-675 inhibitor and LncRNAH19siRNA could significantly increase the migration of HCC cells (P smaller than 0.01) as compared with the control group. Transwell invasion assay demonstrated that the miR-675 inhibitor and LncRNAH19siRNA could significantly increase the invasion of HCC cells (P smaller than 0.01) as compared with the control group. Western blotting analysis showed that the selleck screening library expression levels of AKT and Cdc25A were significantly increased (P smaller than 0.05), and the expression level of GSK-3 beta was significantly decreased (P smaller than 0.05) after treatment with miR-675 inhibitors and LncRNAH19siRNA as compared with the control group. These
findings suggested that inhibition of LncRNAH19 and miR-675 expression can promote migration and invasion of HCC cells via AKT/GSK-3 beta/Cdc25A signaling pathway.”
“A systematic review was performed to provide a qualitative analysis and quantitative data synthesis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing debulking atherectomy versus balloon angioplasty for treatment of femoropopliteal artery occlusive disease. Pub Med (MEDLINE), EMBASE, AMED, Scopus, online content and meeting abstracts were searched in May 2014 for eligible RCTs following the PRISMA selection process. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool. Pooled risks were calculated with a random effects model to account for clinical and conceptual heterogeneity. Sensitivity analysis was employed to test the robustness of the results.
With a median follow-up after surgery
of 78.5 months, the 5-year OS and DSS were 65% and 68%, respectively. Twenty-nine patients (56%) died during follow-up, of whom 24 (46%) died of thyroid cancer. Six patients (12%) developed recurrent disease in the lateral neck, and three patients (6%) developed recurrence in the thyroid bed. Over 45 years, follicular pathology and extrapulmonary metastases 10058-F4 order were predictive of lower 5-year DSS (56% vs. 100%, p < 0.001; 50% vs. 70%, p = 0.004; and 46% vs. 75%, p = 0.013, respectively).\n\nConclusion: Approximately half of patients with WDTC presenting with distant metastases die of disease within 5 years of initial diagnosis despite thyroid surgery and RAI. Age over 45 years, extrapulmonary metastases, and follicular pathology were significant predictors of the poor outcome.”
“Extraskeletal ZD1839 cost myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is a rare soft tissue sarcoma. Although it has been regarded as a low-grade sarcoma unassociated with tumor-related death, a recent study has suggested an insidious nature with a high propensity for relapse during a long disease course. The aim of this study
was to clarify the long-term clinical features of EMC treated at a single referral center using state-of-the-art techniques.\n\nA retrospective review of 23 consecutive patients (10 males, 13 females; mean age 58 years) treated between 1979 and 2008 (mean follow-up; 109 months) was performed.\n\nSurgery for the primary tumor was performed in 22 patients, and 7 cases recurred locally due to inadequate resection. Eleven patients had metastatic disease, either at diagnosis (3) or developing later (8). The 5/10-year overall survival rates were 91/84 %, and the 5/10-year local recurrence-free PKC412 cost and metastasis-free survival rates for patients with localized disease were 89/62
and 89/61 %, respectively. Larger tumor size (> 10 cm) and metastases at diagnosis were significant negative prognostic factors. Four patients received ifosfamide-based chemotherapy with no objective response. There was no local recurrence in three patients who underwent R1 resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. Clinical palliation and retarded progression of the metastatic disease were achieved in three patients who underwent radiotherapy.\n\nEMC is indolent but has a high propensity for relapse over 5 years of follow-up. Definitive initial surgery and careful monitoring for a prolonged period are important. Radiotherapy seems beneficial in an adjuvant setting and as palliative therapy for metastatic disease.”
“A novel bioactive molecule for use in vector control is the need of the hour. Plants hold the key to such molecules which provide an alternative approach for producing a larvicidal product from plant sources. In the present study the larvicidal activity of leaf extracts of B.
Seroprevalence of leptospirosis was lowest for dogs > 10 years of age but was similar across other age strata.\n\nConclusions and Clinical Relevance-Leptospirosis can affect
dogs of small and large breeds and various ages. Although an increase in proportions of positive MAT results was evident in the fall, monthly and annual variations suggested potential exposure in all months. Because of the limitations of MAT results and the limited number of serovars used in the test, bacterial culture should be used to identify infective Leptospira serovars. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010;237:293-298)”
“The seventh cholera pandemic caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor PLX4032 (ET) has been superseded in Asia and Africa by altered ET possessing the cholera toxin (CTX) gene of classical (CL) biotype. The CL biotype of V. cholerae was isolated,
along with prototypic and altered ET, during the 1991 cholera epidemic in Mexico and subsequently remained endemic until 1997. Microbiological, molecular, and phylogenetic analyses of clinical and environmental V. cholerae isolated in Mexico between 1998 and 2008 revealed important genetic events favoring predominance of ET over CL and altered ET. V. cholerae altered ET was predominant after 1991 but not after 2000. V. cholerae strains isolated between 2001 and 2003 and a majority isolated in 2004 lacked CTX prophage (Phi) genes encoding CTX subunits A and B and repeat sequence transcriptional regulators of ET and CL biotypes: i.e., CTX Phi(-). Most CTX Phi(-) V. cholerae isolated in Mexico between 2001 and 2003 also lacked toxin PDGFR inhibitor coregulated pili tcpA whereas some carried either tcpA(ET) or a variant tcpA with noticeable sequence dissimilarity from tcpA(CL). The tcpA variants were not detected in 2005 after
CTX Phi(+) ET became dominant. All clinical and environmental V. cholerae O1 strains isolated during 2005-2008 in Mexico were CTX Phi(+) ET, carrying an additional truncated CTX Phi(-) instead of RS1 satellite phage. Despite V. cholerae CTX Phi(-) ET exhibiting heterogeneity in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, CTX Phi(+) ET isolated during 2004-2008 displayed homogeneity and clonal relationship with V. cholerae ET N16961 and V. cholerae ET isolated in Peru.”
“Background and Objective: For decades, stress has been postulated as a risk factor for multiple sclerosis https://www.selleckchem.com/products/SB-203580.html (MS) relapses. Because of conflicting results in previous studies we conducted a prospective study to investigate this relationship in a less studied, Middle Eastern population. Methods: In this prospective study, 57 Iranian MS patients were followed trimonthly for 12 months. Possible stressful events (measured with validated Persian version of Paykel’s questionnaire) and quality of life (measured with validated Persian version of the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale questionnaire) were assessed in successive visits in addition to other variables.
Our a-priori hypothesis was that selleck chemical schizophrenia patients would show an increased prevalence of the nontaster phenotype compared with controls. The genotypes of two nonsynonymous coding single-nucleotide polymorphisms in TAS2R38 were assayed for 176 schizophrenia patients and 229 healthy control individuals, and the two-allele haplotypes were estimated. There was an over-representation of the major PTC nontaster haplotype among patients of European descent, relative to control individuals of similar ancestry.
Patients and controls of African ancestry did not differ. The PTC nontaster haplotype is a genetic marker that may be used to identify subsets of schizophrenia patients who potentially harbor vulnerability genes in this region of chromosome 7q. Psychiatr Genet 22:286-289 (C) 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Chagas disease is a major endemic disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. This parasitic disease is widely distributed throughout Latin America, affecting 10 million people. There are also reports of canine infection in the southern part of the United States. Dogs are considered the predominant domestic reservoir for 7: cruzi in many
areas of endemicity. In Mexico, find more dog infection by this parasite has been poorly studied. In this work 209 dogs from six villages in Jalisco, Mexico, were assessed to detect anti-T cruzi antibodies by ELISA and Western blot. Seventeen (17) seropositive dogs (8.1 %) were detected by both tests, representing a seropositive value similar to that found in some southern states of Mexico where the infection is present. No statistical differences were observed concerning the age and sex of infected and non-infected dogs. The major antigens recognized by positive sera were 26, 32, 66 and 80 kDa. These proteins are candidates to develop a specific diagnostic method for canine Chagas.
No antibodies against HSP16 protein were found in 7: cruzi seropositive sera. This is the first report of canine serology of Chagas disease in this central part of Mexico. This report will contribute to the knowledge of the infection status of domestic reservoirs in GW4869 in vitro the state of Jalisco, Mexico. (C) 2014 Asociacion Argentina de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Espana, S.L. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Slug, a regulator of epithelial mesenchymal transition, was identified to be differentially expressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) using cDNA microarrays by our laboratory. This study aimed to determine the clinical significance of Slug overexpression in ESCC and determine its correlation with clinicopathological parameters and disease prognosis for ESCC patients.
\n\nMethods and Results: Rats were Selleckchem AP24534 injected with NaHS (an H2S donor, 2-200 mu mol.kg(-1).day(-1), i.p.) or saline for 3 weeks. MBP was measured with a tail-cuff method. C erebral arterioles were isolated and cannulated
in an organ bath system, and vessel diameters were measured with an image-shearing device. Changes in diameter in response to stepwise increases in intravascular pressure (20-120 mmHg) were investigated under no-flow conditions. After the treatments, plasma H2S increased and MBP decreased significantly. NaHS reduced the myogenic response in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was markedly attenuated by glibenclamide, a K-ATP channel blocker. Blockade of nitric oxide (NO) production with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a NO synthase inhibitor) enhanced,
whereas removal of the endothelium abolished the inhibitory role of NaHS on the myogenic response.\n\nConclusions: For the first time it has been demonstrated that H2S decreases the myogenic response of cerebral arterioles in vivo, and this effect is JQ-EZ-05 in vivo endothelium-dependent and partially mediated by K-ATP channels. (Circ J 2012; 76: 1012 1019)”
“BACKGROUND & AIMS: Liver X receptors (LXRs) are transcriptional regulators of cholesterol metabolism, controlling cholesterol flow into cells, catabolism, and efflux. Cholesterol controls cell proliferation; disruptions in cholesterol metabolism have been associated with the development of colon cancer. We investigated whether expression of activated LXR protects against intestinal tumorigenesis in mice. METHODS: We analyzed the development of colon cancer in mice that express a constitutive active form of LXR alpha only in the intestinal epithelium, under the control of villin promoter (iVP16LXR alpha). These mice were crossed with adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc)(min/+) mice,
or given azoxymethane followed by dextran sodium sulfate, to assess intestinal tumor formation. We also assessed proliferation and apoptosis of a human LY2835219 ic50 colorectal cancer cell line (HT29) transfected with an adenoviral vector that expressed Ad VP16hLXR alpha, compared with cells expressing AdVP16 (control), and their ability to form xenograft tumors in mice. HT29 cells also were incubated with the LXR ligand GW3965. RESULTS: In human colorectal cancer cells, ligand-induced activation of LXR or transfection with Ad VP16hLXR alpha blocked the G1 phase, increased caspase-dependent apoptosis, and slowed growth of xenograft tumors in mice. iVP16LXR alpha mice formed fewer, smaller tumors than VP16 (control) mice after administration of azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate. APC(min/+)/iVP16LXR alpha mice also developed fewer, smaller intestinal tumors than APC(min/+)/iVP16 mice.
Incubation of GPAT2-transfected CHO-K1 www.selleckchem.com/products/PD-0325901.html cells with arachidonoyl-CoA increased GPAT activity 2-fold and the incorporation of [1-14C] arachidonate into TAG. Consistently, arachidonic acid was present in the TAG fraction of cells that overexpressed GPAT2, but not in control cells, corroborating GPAT2′s role in synthesizing TAG that is rich in arachidonic acid. In rat and mouse testis, Gpat2 mRNA was expressed only in primary spermatocytes; the protein was also detected in late stages of spermatogenesis. During rat sexual maturation,
both the testicular TAG content and the arachidonic acid content in the TAG fraction peaked at 30 d, matching the highest expression of Gpat2 mRNA and protein. These results strongly suggest that GPAT2 expression is linked to arachidonoyl-CoA selleck chemicals llc incorporation into TAG in spermatogenic germ cells.”
“BACKGROUND: Diagnostic strategies based on empirical testing and treatment to identify herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in neonates may not be appropriate for older children in whom the most common presentation of severe infection is encephalitis, a rare and clinically recognizable condition. METHODS: Use of acyclovir in infants and children in 6 common non-HSV infection-related diagnosis-related groups was characterized between 1999 and 2012 at 15 US pediatric hospitals
by using the Pediatric Health Information System database. Characteristics find more of non-neonatal patients at 1 institution tested for HSV encephalitis over a 6.5-year period were then analyzed to identify factors associated with potentially unnecessary testing and treatment. RESULTS: Acyclovir
use increased from 7.6% to 15.6% (P smaller than .001) from 1999 to 2012. Much of this increase came in infants 30 to 60 days of age (82.7% increase, P smaller than .001) and in patients with milder disease severity (44.8% increase, P smaller than .001). Length of stay was increased by 2 days for children treated with acyclovir (P smaller than .001). At our institution, 1394 HSV cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reactions were performed in children bigger than 30 days old, with only 3 positive results (0.22%). Comparison of the 3 subjects with positive testing and 55 with negative testing revealed that all cases, but only 4% (95% confidence interval 1.2%-14.0%) of noncases had clinical characteristics typical of HSV encephalitis. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies for diagnosis and empirical treatment of suspected HSV encephalitis beyond the neonatal period have trended toward the approach common for neonates without evidence of an increase in disease incidence. This may result in increased medical costs and risk to patients.”
“Background: Graves’ disease (GD) is a consequence of genetic and environmental factors.
Conclusions This data-driven study showed that contrary to anecdotal belief breaking bad news was not intolerable to a cohort of native Nigerian-African patients in a neurosurgical practice.”
“Gene DAPT molecular weight therapy is currently being developed for a wide range of acute and chronic
lung diseases. The target cells, and to a degree the extra and intra-cellular barriers, are disease-specific and over the past decade the gene therapy community has recognized that no one vector is good for all applications, but that the gene transfer agent (GTA) has to be carefully matched to the specific disease target. Gene therapy is particularly attractive for diseases that currently do not have satisfactory treatment options and probably easier for monogenic disorders than for
complex diseases. Cystic fibrosis (CF) fulfils these criteria and is, therefore. a good candidate for gene therapy-based treatment. This review will focus on CF as an example for lung gene therapy, but lessons learned may be applicable to other target diseases. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) gene product, Ataxin-7 (ATXN7), localizes to the nucleus and has been shown to function as a component of the TATA-binding protein-free TAF-containing-SPT3-TAF9-GCN5-acetyltransferase transcription complex, although cytoplasmic CBL0137 chemical structure localization of ATXN7 in affected neurons of human SCA7 patients has also been detected. Here, we define a physiological function for cytoplasmic ATXN7. Live imaging reveals that the intracellular distribution of ATXN7 dynamically changes and that ATXN7 distribution frequently shifts from the nucleus
to the cytoplasm. Immunocytochemistry and immunoprecipitation demonstrate that cytoplasmic ATXN7 associates with microtubules (MTs), and expression of ATXN7 stabilizes MTs against selleck chemicals llc nocodazole treatment, while ATXN7 knockdown enhances MT degradation. Interestingly, normal and mutant ATXN7 similarly associate with and equally stabilize MTs. Taken together, these findings provide a novel physiological function of ATXN7 in the regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics, and suggest that abnormal cytoskeletal regulation may contribute to SCA7 disease pathology.”
“Background and Aim:\n\nOrexins are neuropeptides that are localized in neurons within the lateral hypothalamic area and regulate feeding behavior. The lateral hypothalamic area plays an important role in not only feeding but the central regulation of other functions including gut physiology. Accumulating evidence have shown that orexins acts in the brain to regulate a wide variety of body functions including gastrointestinal functions.
Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were considered in the analyses. ResultsTwo hundred and fifty-one patients were recruited for the study; the mean age was 62years, 58% were men, 72% had colostomy and 25% ileostomy; approximately 70% of patients had intestinal cancer requiring a stoma, 13% a complication and 10% an inflammatory disease. No significant differences
were observed throughout strata in the Stoma Care QoL scale index, except for geographical area, where subjects from south Italy showed a significantly lower index than subjects living in other parts of Italy (P smaller than 0.01). Colostomy and ileostomy patients reported very similar QoL. Cronbach’s alpha for the Stoma Care QoL scale was 0.90 (95% CI 0.88-0.92). Rasch analysis supported the viability of the Stoma Care QoL
scale questionnaire and showed acceptable goodness-of-fit. Three under-fitted C59 Wnt purchase items were observed. ConclusionThe study confirms the validity of the 20-item Stoma Care QoL scale questionnaire as a research tool for stoma patients but the number of items could be reduced.”
“Forest extraction and agricultural production leave many materials that are difficult or impossible to use as is. Hence they are left in the forests and fields as wastes, causing environmental problems and bringing no revenue. However, uses to make valuable products can be found for such wastes by studying them to understand their chemical and physical properties, including their energy content. One such material is pine needles. However, no data are available on their properties. This paper presents the chemical constituents, calorific value and anatomical and morphological this website VX-680 cell line characterization of these needles. In addition, their possible conversion into carbon/activated charcoal through various physical and chemical activations is also discussed.
The true density, specific area and calorific values of these carbons were measured. The results indicate that pine needles have potential for various value added applications, including as additives in the food industry and production of cooking briquettes and other biofuel uses. The results also indicate that physical activation is less effective compared to chemical activation.”
“This paper examines dependence on environmental resources and impacts on household welfare among the indigenous San and Mier rural communities neighbouring Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park in South Africa. Data on the various household income types, including environmental income, were collected through a structured survey of 200 households. Environmental income constituted 20% of the total income. The poorest income quintile showed the highest relative dependence on environmental income (31%), though absolute environmental income increased with total income. Poverty analyses showed that poverty incidence and poverty gap would increase by 13 and 7 percentage points respectively without environmental income.
Regional analysis was then performed for 4 white matter (WM) and 3 gray matter (GM) structures. Diffusivity and kurtosis estimates derived from DKI were shown to be highly sensitive to the developmental changes in these chosen structures. Conventional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters were also computed using monoexponential model, yielding reduced sensitivity
and directional specificity in monitoring the brain maturation changes. These results demonstrated that, by measuring directionally specific diffusivity and kurtosis, DKI offers a more Crenigacestat comprehensive and sensitive detection of tissue microstructural changes. Such imaging advance can provide a better MR diffusion characterization of neural tissues, both WM and GM, in normal, developmental and pathological states. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
disease (CVD) is a leading cause of mortality in renal transplant recipients (RTRs). Metabolic syndrome (MS) is highly prevalent in RTRs. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the hepatic component of MS. We investigated associations of NAFLD markers with MS and mortality. RTRs were investigated between 2001 and 2003. NAFLD markers, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) were measured. Bone and nonbone fractions of AP were also determined. Death was recorded until August 2007. BMS-777607 purchase Six hundred
and two RTRs were studied (age 52 +/- 12 years, 55% men). At baseline 388 RTRs had MS. Prevalence of MS was positively associated with liver enzymes. During follow-up Lazertinib for 5.3[4.5-5.7] years, 95 recipients died (49 cardiovascular). In univariate Cox regression analyses, GGT (HR = 1.43[1.21-1.69], p < 0.001) and AP (HR = 1.34[1.11-1.63], p = 0.003) were associated with mortality, whereas ALT was not. Similar associations were found for cardiovascular mortality. Adjustment for potential confounders, including MS, diabetes and traditional risk factors did not materially change these associations. Results for nonbone AP mirrored that for total AP. ALT, GGT and AP are associated with MS. Of these three enzymes, GGT and AP are associated with mortality, independent of MS. These findings suggest that GGT and AP are independently related to mortality in RTRs.”
“Artificial insemination plays a key role in the genetic management of elephants in zoos. Because freshly extended semen is typically used for artificial insemination in elephants, it has become imperative to optimize conditions for liquid storage and semen transport. The objectives of this study were to examine the interactions between different extenders and storage temperatures on sperm total motility, progressive motility, and acrosomal integrity in Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants.
4% were autonomic nerves. Furthermore, 23.9% of the nerve fibers innervating the IVD were afferent sensory pain-related nerves, 8.9% were efferent sympathetic nerves, and 11.5% were efferent parasympathetic nerves. These findings may explain the wide-ranging and chronic discogenic pain that occurs via the somatosensory and autonomic nervous system.”
“Purpose: to assess the predictive power of three systems: Infection Probability Score, APACHE II and KARNOFSKY score for the onset of Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) in hematology-oncology patients.\n\nMethods and sample: A retrospective pilot surveillance survey C188-9 supplier was conducted in the hematology unit
of a general hospital in Greece. Data were collected AZD7762 in vivo by using an anonymous standardised case-record form. The sample consisted of 102 hospitalized patients.\n\nResults: The majority of the patients (33.3%) suffered from acute myeloid leukemia. The cumulative incidence of CDAD was 10.8% and the incidence rate of C difficile associated diarrhea was 5 per 1000 patient-days (14.2 per 1000 patient-days at risk). Patients with CDAD had twofold higher time of mean length of hospital stay compared with patients without CDAD (38.82 +/- 23.88 vs 19.45 +/- 14.56 days). Additionally patients
with CDAD had received a greater number of different antibiotics compared to those without CDAD (5.18 +/- 1.99 vs 2.54 +/- 2.13), suffered from diabetes, from non Hodgkin’s lymphoma, had a statistically significant higher duration of neutropenia >= 3 days and had received antifungal treatment. The best cutoff Vactosertib datasheet value of IPS for the prediction of CDAD was 13 with a sensitivity of 45.5% and a specificity of 82.4%.\n\nConclusions: IPS is an early diagnostic
test for CDAD detection. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Selective fusion of thoracic and thoracolumbar/lumbar curves in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a concept critically debated in the literature. While some surgeons strongly believe that a more rigid and straighter spine provides predictably excellent outcomes, some surgeons recommend a mobile and less straight spine. This topic is a crucial part of surgical treatment of idiopathic scoliosis, particularly in young patients who will deal with the stress of the fusion mass at the proximal and distal junctions over many years. This study will review the literature on various aspects of selective fusion.”
“Background: EMR is an accepted treatment for early esophageal carcinoma. However, resection of a large mucosal area often causes postoperative esophageal stricture.\n\nObjective: To investigate the efficacy of autologous adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) for prevention of stricture formation after EMR in dogs.\n\nDesign: Animal study.\n\nSetting: University research center.\n\nIntervention: Ten beagle dogs were randomized into a control group and an ADSCs-injected (ADSC) group. The ADSCs were isolated from autologous adipose tissue.