9 3.75 ± 10.9 3.75 ± 10.9 p value compared to V1 0.058 <0.0001 <0.0001 Patients of both groups stated that they were satisfied with the therapy, in fact all the patients answered yes to the question: ""Are you satisfied with your analgesic treatment?"" Adverse events Transdermal opioid switching reduced the incidence of adverse events. Nausea STI571 concentration and vomiting persisted in patients suffering from gall bladder cancer and gastric cancer (three patients). The number of patients with constipation was also reduced; BTDS group: V1 11 pts, V2 4 pts, V3 5 pts, V4 5 pts and similarly in the FTDS group: V1 10 pts, V2 6 pts, V3 4 pts, V4 5 pts
(table 4 and table 5). Constipation persisted only in patients suffering from colon, brain and lung cancer (9 patients). Moreover, in both groups, dysphoria and sedation disappeared completely after the first week (tables 4 and 5). Table 4 Number of patients with Nausea and/or vomiting Number of patients with constipation Number of patients with dysphoria V1 V2 V3 V4 V1
V2 V3 V4 V1 V2 V3 V4 FTDS 9 6 5 3 10 6 4 5 0 0 0 0 BTDS 8 5 4 2 11 4 5 4 2 0 0 0 Table 5 SEDATION SCALE SEDATION SCALE Number of patients without Sedation Number of patients with slight sedation Number of patients with moderate sedation Number of patients with severe sedation V1 V2 V3 V4 V1 V2 V3 V4 V1 V2 V3 V4 V1 V2 V3 V4 FTDS 10 16 16 16 2 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 BTDS 12 16 16 16 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Discussion Opioid
switching is a fundamentally useful strategy in long-term treatment of cancer pain, where tolerance phenomena GSI-IX cost and the large number of side-effects can limit the use of these medicines and further diminish the patients’ quality of life [6, 8]. In these cases, switching from one opioid to another is a useful means to establish a more favourable balance between analgesia and toxicity and is regulated in conversion tables in order to ensure fewer side-effects and an improvement in pain symptoms. [7, 9, 10, 12]. The development of tolerance suggests the necessity to increase the drug dose in order to obtain the same analgesic effect [13, 14]. Tolerance development may also be associated with pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic and psychological processes resulting Urease in an increase in side effects connected not only with the drug, but also with its metabolites. It may be supposed that by changing the opioid and using lower doses than indicated in conversion tables it is possible, in most cases, to reduce toxicity and improve pain symptoms [6, 15, 16]. According to available data, many ATM inhibitor cancer factors may influence opioid treatment such as individual variability, genetic factors, relation among active metabolites, intrinsic activity, number and types of receptors, as well as issues of efficacy, toxicity and tolerance.