Gene expression was measured by real time PCR (RT-PCR) using the

Gene expression was measured by real time PCR (RT-PCR) using the Corbet Research Rotor gene 6000 with the QuantiTech SYBR Green kit (QIAGEN). The FOXP3 sequences used were: forward primer 5′-ACCTGGAAGAACGCCAT and reverse primer Onalespib order 5′-TGTTCGTCCATCCTCCTTTC both at a final concentration of 0.4 μM. FOXP3 copy numbers were expressed in relation to human acidic ribosomal protein (HuPO), the house keeping gene. The standards were prepared as above using blood donated by an adult and the RT-PCR product

pooled and purified using the QIAquick PCR Purification kit (QIAGEN). The DNA was then quantified using the nanodrop and FOXP3 copy numbers calculated using the Avogadro constant formula. Statistical analyses: For paired comparisons between two time points random effects models were used to allow for the clustering effect of subject. For the antibody responses

Abiraterone solubility dmso where there were 7 time points a generalised estimating equation was used with an exchangeable correlation structure. Responses were appropriately transformed and in the absence of a suitable transformation the data was ranked. All regressions were adjusted for possible confounding affects of sex, but due to well balanced groups there was very little evidence of confounding. Where appropriate, time and dose group interactions were tested. Significance was measured at the 5% level and all analyses were performed in Stata 11 (Statacorp) and figures drawn using Matlab 7.9 (The MathWorks Inc.). The number of participants and their loss to the study at different time points are shown in Fig. 1. The overall refusal rate was 11.5%, loss to follow up due to the participant travelling was 17.4% and 3.8% of the children received an unscheduled measles vaccine. The two dose PD184352 (CI-1040) regimen was safe since side effects were mild and infrequent. They did not differ in frequency or timing between group 1 and group 2 either at 4 months of age or at 9 months of age. The most frequent complaints were diarrhoea and fever with a mean prevalence of 7.9 ± 2.4% and 6.6 ± 2.7% respectively. Before vaccination at 4 months of age median HAI titres were log2 2 (IQR 0–3) and log2 3 (IQR 1–4) in

groups 1 and 2 respectively (Fig. 2 and Supplementary Table). At 9 months before the second measles vaccination the median HAI titre in group 2 was log2 3 (IQR 1–6) which is significantly higher than that of group 1 which was zero; 77% of group 2 children had detectable antibody and 66% had protective levels whereas antibody was detected in only 6% of group 1 children. Two weeks after the second dose of E-Z vaccine antibody titres had risen sharply in group 2 with all but one child reaching protective levels whereas only 25/65 (36.4%) of group1 children attained these levels after their first measles vaccination. At 18 months of age antibody titres in group 2 (median 4, IQR 3–5) fell significantly lower than those in group 1 (median 6, IQR 5–7) but then stabilised between 18 and 36 months.

Such a strategy could be utilized to DNA vaccine development to c

Such a strategy could be utilized to DNA vaccine development to create more efficiency in nuclear export, translation and mRNA stability. Vectors can be modularly cloned to provide backbone with docking points for gene expression and analytic purposes. This optimized vector is useful to diminish the frequency of manipulation requires for assembling fragments or transgene into de novo DNA construct. Ideally, module vector contains an arrangement of at least one multiple cloning site (MCS) and variable sets of unique restriction sites. The invention Everolimus clinical trial of PE3 vector comprises a Promoter module, an Expression module, and a 3′ Regulatory module. This modular architecture allows one to place Ibrutinib ic50 or remove domain

modules without interfere the DNA integrity of

essential elements in PE3 vector [71]. Plasmid manufacturing area for gene therapy has emerged. However, further advancement is needed for scaling up in order to fulfill commercial viability, especially factors associated with production host; strain improvement, genome modification, fermentation and purification [72], [73] and [74]. The characteristics of the microbial host also give effect to the quality of the purified pDNA in production [75]. Although not so efficient, gram-positive bacteria such as Lactococcus lactis, produces neither endotoxin nor biogenic amines which eliminate the dependency on cGMP-certifiable LPS-removal process during plasmid production [76]. A comparison study between food grade L. lactis system to a traditional one in E. coli using

identical expression unit encoding the gp120 of HIV-1 produced comparable vaccine component and humoral immune response. Common L. lactis research strains are also many genetically free of antibiotic resistance gene, potent and narrow host-range prophages [77]. For clinical trial, large-scale production is needed, often in about thousand litres. The fermentation medium must sustain a high level production of biomass and plasmid DNA. Improved vector design and host of production will be critical to ensure safety, efficacy and cost effective manufacture of these new generation vaccines. Furthermore, it is not simple to switch from E. coli to gram positive bacterium in pDNA productions. E. coli is undoubtedly the microbe of choice for optimal production and utilization, but as a gram-negative bacterium, it contains highly immunogenic endotoxin or lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in its outer membrane which can cause ‘endotoxic/septic shock’ to the patient [78]. Although chromatography technique do exist that can exclude the LPS from pDNA, these molecules can be co-purified by the ion exchange purification approach [79]. The usage of non-ionic detergent followed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) techniques is simple and scalable, but hampered by low supercoiled plasmid recovery [80].

While an early study of a recombinant gD2 vaccine adjuvanted

While an early study of a recombinant gD2 vaccine adjuvanted

with alum reduced the rate of virologically confirmed recurrences one year post vaccination [84], later studies of glycoprotein vaccines were not effective [85]. Participants with frequent genital HSV-2 recurrences who received a live, attenuated growth compromised strain SCH727965 mw of HSV-2 with a deletion in UL39 (ICP10ΔPK) had decreased self-reported recurrences as compared to placebo [86]. Importantly, this construct was safe, providing proof-of-concept for replication competent vaccine constructs. A replication defective HSV-2 strain with a gH deletion which was able to undergo a single cycle of replication (disabled infectious single cycle, DISC) had similar time to first recurrence, lesion healing rates, and genital shedding rates in HSV-2 seropositive persons with recurrent genital herpes as placebo [87]. Safe and effective prevention of genital HSV infection is the ultimate goal of HSV vaccine research. Because the correlate of protective immunity is unknown, testing the efficacy of prophylactic HSV vaccines requires prospective follow up of persons at risk for genital HSV acquisition. Prior prophylactic vaccine trials have been performed almost exclusively in North America, where

selleck compound the HSV-2 acquisition rate is low. In the per-protocol analysis of the recent gD2 subunit vaccine study, only 1.6% of participants acquired HSV-2 infection, and 1.0% had genital ulcer disease due to HSV-1 or HSV-2, the primary endpoint [82]. In contrast, HSV-2 is rapidly

acquired among men and women initiating sexual activity in sub-Saharan Africa, with incidence up to 23 per 100 person years [88]. Prophylactic HSV-2 vaccine studies should be performed in international settings, where the greatest burden of disease exists. Multi-national trials are also important since there may be geographical strain differences which affect HSV-2 pathogenicity and immunogenicity [89]. It will be important to understand genotypic and phenotypic variation in HSV-2 strains from around the world prior to performing these trials, as these differences may affect vaccine efficacy [89]. Synergy with established Vasopressin Receptor networks, such as the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN), should be explored. Young women are at highest risk for acquiring HSV-2, and serve as an ideal population for prophylactic vaccine trials. Given the sex differences in vaccine efficacy from the gD2 vaccines, it may be important to power trials to stratify vaccine efficacy by sex. As the efficacy of a vaccine may be different in persons who are HSV-1 seropositive and seronegative, both populations should be evaluated. Importantly, HSV-1 is often acquired early in childhood, especially in resource-limited settings, which may shift the optimal time for vaccination to infancy/early childhood. A vaccine targeting both HSV-1 and HSV-2 could be tested in parallel in HSV-1/HSV-2 seronegative children for prevention of HSV-1 infection.

In case of hyperthyroidism there was impairment of milk ejection;

In case of hyperthyroidism there was impairment of milk ejection; lactation was severely suppressed unable to express colostrums resulting in delayed onset of lactogenesis-II.16

Lactogenesis-II symbolizes a major infants feeding event because it is the point in time at which the mammary gland begins producing copious amount of milk. The study that we conducted was focused AC220 clinical trial to assess patients having a significant delay in onset of lactogenesis-II and the factors responsible for delayed onset of lactogenesis-II. From our study it was revealed that mode of delivery, type of anesthesia, anemia, birth weight, medical conditions such as pregnancy induced hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, and hypothyroidism had significant relation to time to onset of lactogenesis-II. Delay in lactogenesis-II may adversely affect the lactation process, including breastfeeding duration. The results from this study may help to develop a profile of women at risk of delayed onset of lactogenesis-II and allow clinicians to target appropriate interventions and educating nursing mothers on expectation and provide support and reassurance when delay to lactogenesis may be expected. By anticipating delay in lactogenesis-II, clinicians may be able to support nursing mothers and prevent hasty transitions to formula supplementation due to a misperception of insufficient milk production as opposed to a delay in lactogenesis.

However the study results have to be validated in large population setup to confirm the results. To conclude, the study has enabled to find out the factors affecting time of onset of lactogenesis-II and it may help clinicians to Galunisertib molecular weight identify women at risk of delayed onset of lactogenesis-II and to give them proper support. All authors have

none to declare. The authors wish to thank all the faculty members of Department of for Pharmacy Practice, KMCH College of Pharmacy, India for their valuable guidance. We extend our heartfelt thankfulness to KMCH Hospital medical staffs, Coimbatore, India for their timely support to complete this work. “
“Now day’s pharmaceutical industries are showing increasing interest in topical preparations i.e. creams, ointments, lotions, foams, gels and nasal sprays etc. For accurate analysis of any pharmaceutical dosage form, simple, rapid and reproducible analytical methods are required. Liquid chromatographic separation technique is a powerful analytical tool and most preferable analytical technique used in pharmaceutical industries.1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 The developed analytical method should be accurate, reproducible, robust, precise and commercially viable one.7, 8 and 9 To ensure all these parameters in a method, validation of the analytical method is required as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines.8 and 9 Imiquimod cream is commonly used to treat genital warts, known as Human Papilloma Virus (HPV).10 It is also used as a treatment of precancerous skin lesions, known as actinic keratosis.

16 In the present study, total flavonoid, total phenolic contents

16 In the present study, total flavonoid, total phenolic contents and radical scavenging activities of 6 selected medicinal plants were assessed. In this study, out of 6 medicinal plants tested, P. amarus had the maximum phytochemical and antioxidant activity followed by L. aspera. Still extensive studies are needed to evaluate the phytochemical and pharmacological activities of specific lead compounds in order to use these plants as a probable source for the potential natural antioxidants. All authors have none

to declare. LY2157299 concentration The authors are very thankful to The Department of Biotechnology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India for supporting

this research through DST-FIST and UGC-SAP funds “
“Skin and skin structure infections (SSSIs) are infections which include skin, and range from minor pyodermas selleckchem to severe necrotizing infections.1 and 2 Among the gram-positive organisms, particularly Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative organisms are common causes of SSSIs. Gram-positive organisms, predominantly Staphylococci and Streptococci, are responsible for the majority of bone and joint infections (BJIs). The treatment of SSSIs and BJIs remains difficult to treat because of increasing resistance to commonly used antibiotics for the treatment of these infections. 3, 4, 5 and 6 Moreover the emergence of extended spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) and metallo-β-lactamase (MBLs) 7, 8 and 9 is making it difficult to treat BJIs and SSSIs caused by gram-negative and gram-positive infections. Resistance being the first cause of failure of therapy particularly in Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella

pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Escherichia coli and S. aureus. 10 In view of the increasing failure rate of β-lactams including carbapenems, there is a need of a new antibiotic/combination of antibiotics which can work more efficiently against ESBLs and MBLs. Therefore, we have designed a new antibiotic adjuvant entity of Ceftriaxone-sulbactam-with adjuvant disodium edetate (Elores) (US patent no 8273732). Dipeptidyl peptidase The in vitro, preclinical, microbiological and molecular studies have demonstrated it to be more effective than penicillins, cephalosporins, beta-lactam and beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations including piperacillin + tazobactam, cefoperazone + sulbactam, amoxicillin + clavulanate.11, 12 and 13 Therefore, present study was planed to study randomized, open label, prospective, multicenter comparison of Elores versus ceftriaxone in the treatment of SSSIs and BJIs. Current study is approved by DCGI and has been performed in accordance with GCP guidelines.

CS is a systemic disease involving a vicious cycle of inflammatio

CS is a systemic disease involving a vicious cycle of inflammation, ischemia, and progressive myocardial dysfunction, which often results in death. This life-threatening emergency requires intensive monitoring accompanied

by aggressive hemodynamic support; other therapies are tailored to the specific pathophysiology. The development of novel therapeutic strategies is urgently required to reduce the unacceptably high mortality rates currently associated with CS. Anuradha Lala and Mandeep R. Mehra Though cardiac transplantation for advanced heart disease patients remains definitive therapy for patients with advanced heart failure, see more it is challenged by inadequate donor supply, causing durable mechanical circulatory support (MCS) to slowly become a new primary standard. Selecting appropriate patients for buy PF-02341066 MCS involves meeting a number of prespecifications as is required in evaluation for cardiac transplant candidacy. As technology evolves to bring forth more durable smaller devices, selection criteria for appropriate MCS recipients will likely expand to encompass a broader, less sick population. The “Holy Grail” for MCS will be a focus on clinical recovery and explantation of devices rather than the currently more narrowly defined indications of bridge to transplantation or lifetime device therapy. J. William Schleifer

and Komandoor Srivathsan The management of ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation in the cardiac intensive care unit can be complex. These arrhythmias have many triggers, including ischemia, sympathetic stimulation, and medication toxicities, as well as many different substrates, ranging from ischemic

and nonischemic cardiomyopathies to rare genetic conditions such as Brugada syndrome and long QT syndrome. Different settings, such as congenital heart disease, postoperative ventricular arrhythmias, and ventricular assist devices, until increase the complexity of management. This article reviews the variety of situations and cardiac conditions that give rise to ventricular arrhythmias, focusing on inpatient management strategies. Matthew I. Tomey, Umesh K. Gidwani, and Samin K. Sharma Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a new therapy for severe aortic stenosis now available in the United States. Initial patients eligible for TAVR are defined by high operative risk, with advanced age and multiple comorbidities. Following TAVR, patients experience acute hemodynamic changes and several possible complications, including hypotension, vascular injury, anemia, stroke, new-onset atrial fibrillation, conduction disturbances and kidney injury, requiring an acute phase of intensive care. Alongside improvements in TAVR technology and technique, improvements in care after TAVR may contribute to improved outcomes.

This high quality,

large multi-centre trial by Van de Por

This high quality,

large multi-centre trial by Van de Port and colleagues (2012) is the latest contribution to the body of evidence. The study confirms that taskoriented circuit class training in small groups is as effective as individual intervention in improving mobility in people who require outpatient rehabilitation within the first six months after stroke. More important, selleck chemicals the efficiency in terms of staff resources of small groups suggests that where possible circuit class intervention should be used. Specifically, for the same healthcare costs, classes could afford more therapy for the individual either through increases in amount delivered in one day or by increasing the time over which services can be delivered. The differences between the groups in terms of walking speed and 6 minute walk distance were modest but in favour of the circuit class intervention. Without more detail of the interventions selleck chemical delivered to both groups it is hard to discuss the reasons for this result. For example there is evidence that treadmill training improves walking in both ambulatory (Ada et al, in press) and non-ambulatory (Dean et al 2010, Ada et al 2010) people after stroke. Similarly the use of biofeedback has been found to improve outcome (Stanton et al 2010). The trial also had a large number of secondary

outcomes measures some of which were redundant. Omitting some redundant measures and including a measure of free-living physical activity would have been useful to see if benefits had carried over into everyday life. Alzahrani and colleagues (2009) have shown stair ability

Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase predicts free living physical activity after stroke. Inclusion of a free-living activity measure could have allowed subsequent analysis of this relationship in a Dutch sample. “
“Summary of: Vivodtzev I et al (2012) Functional and muscular effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in patients with severe COPD: a randomised clinical trial. Chest 141: 716–725. [Prepared by Kylie Hill, CAP Editor.] Question: In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), what effect does neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) have on muscle function and walking endurance? Design: Randomised, controlled trial in which the patients and those who collected outcome measures were blinded to group allocation. Setting: Home-based intervention with outcomes collected at a hospital in Quebec City, Canada. Participants: Patients who were clinically stable, sedentary and able to travel to the hospital with: (a) a smoking history > 20 pack-years, (b) severe airflow obstruction, and (c) a 6-minute walk distance < 400 m. Exclusion criteria comprised any co-morbid condition associated with muscle wasting. Randomisation of 22 patients allocated 13 to the intervention group and 9 to the control group. Interventions: Both groups received electrical stimulation 5 times a week for 6 weeks.

To achieve objective 1), the prevalence of adequate and


To achieve objective 1), the prevalence of adequate and

limited health literacy were calculated. Unadjusted logistic regression modelling was used to generate odds ratios (ORs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between health literacy and all covariates. Linear trend tests were used to assess graded relationships between ordered variables and health literacy. The same analyses were then conducted between participation in CRC screening and all covariates. To achieve objective 2), the independent association between having adequate health literacy and participation in CRC screening was estimated using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression. Age, sex, educational attainment, and net non-pension wealth were forced into the model and all health-related this website covariates associated with PF-01367338 molecular weight screening with p < 0.20 in bivariate analysis were included in the initial model

and retained if their deletion resulted in a ≥ 10% change in the OR for the association between health literacy and CRC screening (Rothman and Greenland, 1998). Two sensitivity analyses were conducted. The first excluded those who refused to complete the health literacy assessment (n = 92) to ensure that these participants were not misclassified

in a way to cause bias. The second excluded those who reported completing FOBT-based medroxyprogesterone CRC screening outside of the national programme (n = 49). All regression modelling was performed with population weights applied to account for differential non-response across population subgroups (NatCen Social Research, 2012). All statistical tests were two-sided and performed at the 95% confidence level. All statistical analyses were conducted using StataSE 12.0 (StataCorp, College Station, TX). Nearly one in three ELSA participants eligible for CRC screening lacked adequate health literacy skills (Table 1). Health literacy was non-differential by gender, while those with higher educational qualifications, of an intermediate or managerial occupational class, of any wealth quintile above the poorest, and of a white ethnicity were more likely to have adequate health literacy skills (Table 1). Not having a limiting long-standing illness, any limitations in activities of daily living, or depressive symptoms and having excellent, very good, or good general health were associated with having adequate health literacy skills. Having a previous cancer diagnosis was not associated with health literacy.

Purity of the compounds was checked by TLC on silica gel G plates

IR spectra were run in

KBr pellets on a Perkin–Elmer 157 spectrometer. 1H NMR spectra were recorded in CDCl3 or DMSO on a Bruker–Varian 300 MHz FT NMR spectrometer using TMS as internal standard. Purity of the compounds was checked by TLC on silica gel G plates see more and the spots were located by exposure to iodine vapors. The characterization data of the compounds is given in Tables 1 and 2. 3,5-Dimethyl-2,4-diethoxy carbonyl pyrrole (1) (0.05 mol), hydrazine hydrate (1.0 mL, 99%), and ethanol (20 mL). The completion of reaction was checked by thin layer chromatography. The mixture was evaporated to its half and left over night. The product precipitated was filtered, washed with water, dried and crystallized from ethanol. Yield 70%: M.P.216 °C: IR (KBr): 3153 (NH), 1621 (CONH), 1712 (COOC2H5), 1322 (–CH3): 1NMR (300 MHz find protocol DMSO) δ 7.82–7.91 (m, 3H, CONHNH2), 8.9 (1H, s, Pyrrole–NH). A mixture of compounds 2-(3′,5′-Dimethyl-4′-ethoxy

carbonyl pyrrole) acid hydrazide (2) (0.01 mol), phenylisocynate (0.01 mol) and ethanol (25.0 mL) was refluxed for 8 h. The resulting mixture was evaporated to its half and the mixture was left for 48 h. The separated solid was filtered and crystallized from aq. ethanol. Yield. 85%, M.P.197 °C, IR (KBr): 3240 (NH), 1685 (CONH), 1595 (ArH), 1360 (–CH3), 1700 cm−1 (COOC2H5), 1H NMR (300 MHz Dipeptidyl peptidase DMSO), δ 8.2 (1H, s, Pyrrole-NH), 7.1–7.8 (3H, m, CONHNHCONH). Yield 70%, M.P. 205 °C; IR (KBr); 3337 cm−1 (NH), 1660 cm−1 (CONH), 1565 cm−1 (ArH), 1763 (COOC2H5) 1345 cm−1 (–CH3); 1H NMR (300 MHz DMSO), δ 2.7 (6H, s, 2 × CH3), 8.3 (1H, s, NH), 7.7 (3H, m, CONHNHCONH). Yield 65%, M.P. 180 °C; IR (KBr); 3338 (NH), 1683 (CONH), 1547 (ArH), 748 cm−1 (C–Cl), 1H NMR (300 MHz DMSO), δ 3.1 (6H, s, 2 × CH3), 6.1–8.0

(Ar–H), 8.1 (NH), 7.7 (3H, m, CONHNHCONH). Yield 88%, M.P. 218 °C; IR (KBr); 3345 (NH), 1687 (CONH), 1557 (ArH), 768 cm−1 (C–Cl), 1H NMR (300MHzDMSO), δ 3.1 (6H, s, 2 × CH3), 7.92 (1H, s, NH), 8.2 (3H, m, CONHNHCONH). Yield 80%, M.P. 120 °C; IR (KBr); 3335 (NH), 1683 (CONH), 1540 (ArH), 1537 cm−1 (C–NO2), 1H NMR (300 MHz DMSO), δ 3.1 (6H, s, 2 × CH3), 8.61 (1H, s, NH), 8.5 (3H, m, CONHNHCONH). Yield 60%, M.P. 198 °C; IR (KBr); 3330 (NH), 1683 (CONH), 1577 (ArH), 1472 cm−1 (C–NO2), 1H NMR (300 MHz DMSO), δ 3.1 (6H, s, 2 × CH3), 7.1 (1H, s, NH), 6.9 (3H, m, CONHNHCONH). Yield 55, M.P. 257 °C; IR (KBr); 3335 (NH), 1673 (CONH), 1567 (ArH), 1532 cm−1 (C–NO2), 1H NMR (300 MHz DMSO), δ 3.1 (6H, s, 2 × CH3), 8.21 (1H,s, NH), 7.8 (3H, m, CONHNHCONH). To a solution of 2-(3′,5′-dimethyl-4′-ethoxy carbonyl pyrrole)-1-phenyl-isosemi-carbazide (3) (2g) in 25 ml of dry methanol was added of (4 N, 3 mL), sodium hydroxide solution and refluxed for 3 h and kept at room temperature for 24 h.

Then the vessel was removed from the fire While hot condition, t

Then the vessel was removed from the fire. While hot condition, the mixed powders of ingredients 1–16 were added and mixed thoroughly to prepare the homogenous product. The product was allowed

to cool at room temperature and packed in tightly closed containers to protect from light and moisture. The drug sample (5 g) was weighed Selleck Entinostat and mixed with 50 ml of water in a beaker with gentle warming, till the sample completely dispersed in water. The mixture was centrifuged and decanted the supernatant. The sediment was washed several times with distilled water, centrifuged again and decanted the supernatant. A few mg of the sediment was taken and mounted in glycerin. Then few mg was taken in watch glass and added few drops of phloroglucinol and concentrated hydrochloric acid, mounted in glycerin. The salient Trichostatin A manufacturer microscopic features of the drug were observed in different mounts.4 All the three batch samples were subjected for the analysis of physico-chemical studies like total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, solubility in alcohol and water and for

loss on drying at 105 °C. Bulk density, sugar estimation and pH values for 1% and 10% aqueous solution were also carried out.5 All the three samples (2 g) were soaked in chloroform and alcohol separately for 18 h, refluxed for 10 min on water bath and filtered. The filtrates were concentrated on water bath and made up to 5 ml in a standard flask separately.

Both chloroform and alcohol extracts were applied on pre-coated silica gel 60 F254 TLC plate (E. merck) as absorbent and developed the plate using solvent systems, toluene:ethyl acetate 9:1 and 6:4 respectively. After developing, the plates were dried and observed the colour spots at UV 254 nm, UV 366 nm and vanillin–sulphuric acid spraying reagent.6 The other parameters such as Edoxaban microbial load and heavy metal were carried out as per the WHO guidelines.7 Aflatoxin and pesticide residues were carried out by standard methods.8 Jawarish-e-Jalinoos is brown in colour, semi-solid, characteristic of its own odour and sweetish bitter in taste. The samples were spreaded in a petridish and observed. No filth, fungus or objectionable extraneous matters were found in the samples. The salient features of raw drugs in Jawarish-e-Jalinoos were observed and the microscopical photographs are shown in Fig.