3 cm and a median R E N A L score of 11 Of index lesions 80% we

3 cm and a median R.E.N.A.L. score of 11. Of index lesions 80% were high complexity and 56% of patients had a solitary kidney. Patients received a median of 8 weeks of pazopanib. The median interval from treatment start to surgery was 10.6 weeks. R.E.N.A.L. score

decreased in 71% of tumors and 92% of patients experienced a reduction in tumor volume. Six of 13 patients for whom partial nephrectomy was not possible at baseline TGF-beta inhibitor were able to undergo partial nephrectomy after treatment. The mean parenchymal volume that could be saved with surgery increased from an estimated 107 to 173 cc (p = 0.0015). In 5 patients a urine leak developed, which was managed conservatively, and 7 received a transfusion, of whom 1 required embolization. Conclusions: Neoadjuvant pazopanib resulted in downsizing localized renal cell carcinoma, allowing for improved preservation of renal parenchyma and enabling

partial nephrectomy in a select subset of patients who would otherwise require radical nephrectomy.”
“Purpose of review\n\nSteroid hormone receptors (SHR) are crucial regulators of disease and the basis for clinical intervention in cancers. Recent evidence confirms that microRNAs ( miRNAs) impact the pathobiology of hormone-regulated malignancies. Therefore, elucidating miRNA regulation of SHR expression and modulation of miRNAs by SHRs may provide diagnostic biomarkers or therapeutic targets.\n\nRecent findings\n\nEstrogen receptor status has been established as a key factor

in breast cancer prognosis and treatment. Recent studies Selleck Compound C detail the interactions between estrogen receptor and miRNAs in cancers. New evidence indicates involvement of miRNAs in the regulation of androgen receptor, progesterone receptor, glucocorticoid receptor in hormone responsive cancers. Several miRNAs regulate the expression of the SHRs, while other miRNAs are themselves regulated by SHR signaling in cancer.\n\nSummary\n\nCancers have distinct miRNA expression profiles that contribute to the pathobiology of the disease. In hormone-responsive cancers, the regulatory interactions between the SHR and miRNA may contribute to disease progression. The miRNA regulation of estrogen receptor GSK690693 mouse in cancer has been established in estrogen-dependent cancers. The role of miRNAs in regulating progesterone receptor, androgen receptor and glucocorticoid receptor is under investigation with new insights emerging. These interactions can provide prognostic utility as well as the potential for therapeutic intervention in the future.”
“Phenoxy radical coupling reactions are involved in the biosynthesis of lignans in planta. Interestingly, the reaction can be guided by dirigent proteins, which mediate the stereoselective formation of either (+) or (-)-pinoresinol from coniferyl alcohol.

After 6 months storage,

After 6 months storage, Selleckchem P5091 the

nanodispersion showed unchanged particles size, morphology, crystal state, chemical structure, and dissolution. In vitro dissolution rate indicated that the nanodispersion could significantly enhance the dissolution rate when compared to the commercial available Sporanox capsules. The nanodispersion achieved 70% of drug dissolution in 10 min, whereas the Sporanox capsules only dissolved 20% during the same period.\n\nConclusion: This study demonstrated that high-gravity technique is a promising method for large scale production of nanodispersions to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs.”
“Objective:\n\nThe aim of the present study was to observe the effects of 1.8GHz radiofrequency (RF) radiation on the protein expression of human lens epithelial cells (hLECs) in vitro.\n\nMethods:\n\nThe hLECs were exposed and sham-exposed to 1.8GHz RF radiation (specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4W/kg) for 2h. After exposure, the proteins extracted from LECs were loaded on the Ettan MDLC system connected

to the LTQ-Orbitrap MS for screening the AZD0530 candidate protein biomarkers induced by RF. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the levels of messenger RNA of candidate biomarkers. After the hLECs were exposed to 1.8GHz RF (SAR of 2, 3 and 4W/kg) for 2h, the Western blot assay was utilized to measure the expression levels of the above-screened candidate protein biomarkers.\n\nResults:\n\nThe results of shotgun proteomic analysis indicated that there were eight proteins with differential expression between exposure and sham exposure groups. The results of qRT-PCR showed that there were three genes with expressional differences (valosin containing protein (VCP), ubiquitin specific peptidase 35 (USP35) and signal recognition

particle 68kDa (SRP68)) between exposure and sham exposure groups. The results of Western blot assay exhibited that the expressional levels of VCP and USP35 proteins significantly increased and the expressional level of protein SRP68 significantly decreased in hLECs exposed to 1.8GHz RF radiation (SAR of 3 and 4W/kg) for 2h when compared with the corresponding sham groups (p<0.05).\n\nConclusion:\n\nThe shotgun proteomics INCB028050 solubility dmso technique can be applied to screen the proteins with differential expression between hLECs exposed to 1.8GHz RF and hLECs sham-exposed to 1.8GHz RF, and three protein biomarkers associated with RF radiation were validated by Western blot assay.”
“Lanthipeptides are a group of posttranslationally modified peptide natural products that contain multiple thioether crosslinks. These crosslinks are formed by dehydration of Ser/Thr residues followed by addition of the thiols of Cys residues to the resulting dehydroamino acids.

An M1 to M2 transition of tumor-associated macrophages was

An M1 to M2 transition of tumor-associated macrophages was

demonstrated, paralleled by a deterioration of dendritic cell status. Treatment with low-dose aspirin to mice homozygous for the TH-MYCN transgene significantly reduced the tumor burden (P < 0.01), the presence of tumor-associated cells of the innate immune system (P < 0.01), as well as the intratumoral expression of transforming selleck kinase inhibitor growth factor-, thromboxane A(2) (P < 0.05) and prostaglandin D-2 (P < 0.01). In conclusion, tumor-associated inflammation appears as a potential therapeutic target in NB and low-dose aspirin reduces tumor burden in the TH-MYCN transgenic mouse model of NB, hence warranting further studies on aspirin in high-risk NB.”
“It was investigated whether continuous Fate infusion of the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine can suppress memory

formation by mechanisms other than reducing perception of sensory input in a fear-conditioning paradigm. Different groups of rats infused with either saline or dexmedetomidine (2.0, 4.0 or 10.0 mu g/kg bolus, followed by 2.0, 4.0 or 10.0 mu g/kg/h continuous rate infusion respectively), were subjected to a somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP) fear-conditioning paradigm. This paradigm ASP2215 combined the pairing of an innoxious conditioned stimulus (CS) and a noxious unconditioned stimulus (US), of which the latter was used to generate the SEPs (training phase). The following day, the perception of the US during the training

phase was assessed by presenting the CS only and subsequently scoring the resulting duration of freezing behaviour (testing phase). Freezing behaviour was reduced only in those groups which demonstrated reduced SEPs. Based on these findings, it is concluded that dexmedetomidine suppresses memory formation only at doses reducing central nervous system activity in response to sensory input. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives This study sought to define contemporary trends in permanent pacemaker use by analyzing a large national database.\n\nBackground The Medicare National Doramapimod Coverage Determination for permanent pacemaker, which emphasized single-chamber pacing, has not changed significantly since 1985. We sought to define contemporary trends in permanent pacemaker use by analyzing a large national database.\n\nMethods We queried the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to identify permanent pacemaker implants between 1993 and 2009 using the International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision-Clinical Modification procedure codes for dual-chamber (DDD), single-ventricular (VVI), single-atrial (AAI), or biventricular (BiV) devices.

Though postulated, there remains a lack of experimental evidence

Though postulated, there remains a lack of experimental evidence about the roles of nasal aerodynamics on the development of ENS.\n\nObjective: To investigate the nasal aerodynamic features of ENS andto explore the role of aerodynamic changes on the pathogenesis of ENS. Methods: Seven sinonasal models were numerically constructed, based on the high

resolution computed tomography images of seven healthy male adults. Bilateral radical inferior/middle turbinectomy were numerically performed to mimic the typical nasal structures of ENS-inferior turbinate (ENS-IT) and ENS-middle turbinate (ENS-MT). A steady laminar model was applied in calculation. Velocity, pressure, streamlines, air flux and wall shear stress were numerically investigated. Each parameter of normal structures was compared with those of the corresponding GSK3326595 clinical trial pathological models of ENS-IT and ENS-MT, respectively.\n\nResults: ENS-MT: Streamlines, air flux distribution, and wall shear stress distribution were generally similar to those of the normal structures; nasal resistances decreased. Velocities decreased locally, while increased around the sphenopalatine ganglion by 0.20 +/- 0.17m/s and 0.22 +/- 0.10m/s Crenigacestat during inspiration and expiration, respectively. ENS-IT: Streamlines were less organized with new vortexes shown near the bottom wall. The airflow rates passing through the nasal olfactory area decreased by 26.27%+/- 8.68% and 13.18%+/-

7.59% during inspiration and expiration, respectively. Wall shear stresses, nasal resistances and local velocities all decreased.\n\nConclusion: Our CFD simulation study suggests that the changes in nasal aerodynamics may play an essential role in the pathogenesis of ENS. An increased velocity around www.selleckchem.com/products/idasanutlin-rg-7388.html the sphenopalatine ganglion in the ENS-MT models could be responsible for headache in patients with ENS-MT. However, these results need to be validated in further studies with a larger sample size and more complicated calculating models.”
“Ovarian cancer is the leading cause

of death from gynecological malignancy, and the fourth most common cause of cancer death among American women. This study investigates the mechanism of fibronectin (FN) in stimulating ovarian cancer cell migration and invasion through up-regulation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) pathway. Human ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR-3, A2780/CP70) were cultured and treated with fibronectin (10 mu g/mL). Trans-well plates were used to conduct the migration assay, real-time RT-PCR for FAK mRNA expression, and FAK siRNA for blocking FAK expression. Western blots were used for P-FAK, P-PI3K, and P-Akt analysis. Fibronectin-treated OVCAR-3, A2780/CP70 cells have increased ability to migrate and invade. It significantly promoted this behavior through the phosphorylation of FAK. The cell displayed significantly increased signaling regulation of the FAK pathway (p-PI3K/P-Akt).

Intra-arterial chemotherapy consisted of cisplatin (Days 1-3) and

Intra-arterial chemotherapy consisted of cisplatin (Days 1-3) and pirarubicin (Days 8-10), and radiation was administered with the chemotherapy (2 Gy/session) with a total dosage of 44 Gy. The median age was 67.0 years. There were 60 patients in T2, 19 patients in T3 and 15 patients

in T4. The median follow-up period was 72.9 months in the survivors.\n\nAmong these patients, 84 patients (89.4%) obtained a complete response (CR) and 10 see more patients did not achieve a CR. Between the CR and non-CR patients, the clinical stage and the existence of hydronephrosis were significantly different. The cause-specific survival rates at 5 and 10 years were 76.2% and 67.5%, respectively. The overall EX 527 survival rates at 5 and 10 years were 66.6% and 47.4%, respectively. A Cox proportional hazard model showed that only the cause-specific survival rate was associated with a CR after treatment. The bladder preservation rates were 89.7% at 5 years and 87.6% at 10 years. Myelosuppression was the major adverse event but it was manageable. Non-hematological sever adverse

events were rare.\n\nBladder preservation therapy shows good survival and good bladder preservation rates. Clinical stage T2 and the absence of hydronephrosis are favorable factors.”
“Aim: Depression is thought to be a predictor of poor survival among cancer patients. In our study, we aimed to investigate the association between depression and survival in patients with gastric cancer. Methods: The subjects were a total of 300 patients www.selleckchem.com/products/NVP-AUY922.html aged 20-75 years who had histological confirmed diagnosis of gastric cancer from January 2004 to May 2006. Three months after patients diagnosis, depression was scored using by the Depression Status Inventory (DSI) designed by Willian WK Zung. The follow-up period consisted of a total of 13,643

person-months. A Cox’s regression analysis was used to assess the association between depression and survival. Results: The percentage of subjects with depression according to the DSI depression criteria was 31%. Tumor stage and treatment methods were significantly associated with depression of patients. Age (60 years or older), annual income, tumor stage, lymph nodes metastasis and treatment were significantly associated with increased hazard ratio (HR) for gastric cancer survival. The adjusted HR for mortality risk in gastric cancer patients with depression tended to be high (HR=3.34, 95% CI=1.23-5.49) and a significant trend was found (P<0.05). Conclusion: The data obtained in this prospective study in Chinese support the hypothesis that depression is associated with poor survival among gastric cancer patients. Further studies with a large sample and longer term follow-up period are needed.

In a separate group of 11 matched plasma and CSF cerebral malaria

In a separate group of 11 matched plasma and CSF cerebral malaria patient samples, the ratio of plasma to CSF PfHRP-2 was 175. The CSF PfHRP-2 reflects elevated plasma PfHRP-2 rather than elevated CM-specific CSF ratios, falling short of a validated biomarker.”
“Endothelial cells (ECs) are a critical

target of viruses, and infection of the endothelium represents a defining point in viral pathogenesis. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), the prototypical betaherpesvirus, encodes proteins specialized for entry into ECs and delivery of the genome to the nuclei of ECs. Virus strains competent to enter ECs replicate with differing efficiencies, selleck kinase inhibitor suggesting that the virus encodes genes for postentry tropism in ECs. We previously reported a specific requirement for the UL133/8 locus of HCMV for replication in ECs. The UL133/8 locus harbors four genes: UL133, UL135, UL136, and UL138. In this study, we find that while UL133 and UL138 are dispensable for replication in ECs, both UL135 and UL136 are important. These genes are not required for virus entry or the expression of viral genes. The phenotypes associated with disruption of either gene reflect phenotypes observed for the UL133/8NULL virus, which lacks the entire UL133/8 locus, but are largely distinct from one another. Viruses

lacking UL135 fail to properly envelop capsids Angiogenesis inhibitor in the cytoplasm, produce fewer dense bodies (DB) than the wild-type (WT) virus, and are unable to incorporate viral products into multivesicular bodies (MVB). Viruses lacking UL136 also fail to properly envelop virions and produce larger dense bodies than the WT virus. Our results indicate roles for the UL135 and UL136 proteins in commandeering host membrane-trafficking pathways for virus maturation. UL135 and UL136 Small molecule library represent

the first HCMV genes crucial for early-to late-stage tropism in ECs. IMPORTANCE Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) persists in the majority of the world’s population. While typically asymptomatic in healthy hosts, HCMV can cause significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised or naive individuals, particularly transplant patients and patients with congenital infections, respectively. Lifelong persistence of the virus may also contribute to agerelated pathologies, such as vascular disease. One aspect of HCMV infection contributing to complex and varied pathogenesis is the diverse array of cell types that this virus infects in the host. The vascular endothelium is a particularly important target of infection, contributing to viral dissemination and likely leading to CMV complications following transplantation. In this work, we identify two viral gene products required for postentry tropism in endothelial cells. Identifying tropism factors required for replication in critical cell targets of infection is important for the development of strategies to restrict virus replication.”
“Skeletal muscle has been identified as a secretory organ.

5% were infected with more than one pathogen M pneumoniae

5% were infected with more than one pathogen. M pneumoniae

infection strongly correlated with mean temperature. Children with a single M pneumoniae infection had significantly higher neutrophil percentages and CRP levels than children with co-infections.\n\nConclusions: M pneumoniae is one of the most commonly held pathogens, according to the 5-year surveillance. M pneumoniae infection has its own epidemic season, especially in the summer. Mean temperature is the main meteorological factor affecting the epidemiology of M pneumoniae infections.”
“Background: The clinical relevance of observations of serum levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor -kappa B ligand (RANKL) in juvenile idiopathic Ion Channel Ligand Library purchase arthritis (JIA) is not clear. To elucidate the potential role of OPG and RANKL in JIA we determined serum levels of OPG and RANKL in patients with early JIA compared to healthy children, and prospectively explored changes in relation to radiographic score, bone and lean mass, severity of the disease, and treatment.\n\nMethods: Ninety children with early oligoarticular or polyarticular JIA (ages 6-18 years; mean disease duration 19.4 months) and 90 healthy children individually matched for age, sex, race, and county of residence, were examined at baseline and 2-year follow-up. OPG and RANKL were quantified by enzyme-immunoassay. Data were analyzed with the use of t-tests, ANOVA, and multiple regression

analyses.\n\nResults: Serum OPG was significantly lower in patients than controls at Veliparib order baseline, and there was a trend towards higher RANKL and a lower OPG/RANKL ratio. Patients with polyarthritis had significantly higher increments in RANKL from baseline to follow-up, compared to patients with oligoarthritis. RANKL was a significant negative predictor for increments in total body lean

mass. Patients who were receiving corticosteroids (CS) or disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) at follow-up had higher OPG/RANKL ratio compared with patients who did not receive this medication.\n\nConclusions: The data supports that levels of OPG are lower in patients with JIA compared to healthy children, and higher levels of RANKL is associated with more serious disease. RANKL was a significant negative predictor of lean mass in patients AZD9291 price with JIA. The OPG/RANKL ratio was higher in patients on DMARDs or CS treatment.”
“Myocardin is an important transcriptional regulator in smooth and cardiac muscle development. We noticed that the expression of myocardin was markedly downregulated in human uterine leiomyosarcoma cells. Restoration of myocardin expression induced the reexpression of smooth muscle marker proteins and the formation of well-developed actin fibers. A concomitant increase in the expression of a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21, led to significantly reduced cell proliferation, via p21′s inhibition of the G(1)-S transition.

Based on the geometric organization of the Mn4CaO5 cluster reveal

Based on the geometric organization of the Mn4CaO5 cluster revealed by the crystallographic analysis, in combination with the results of a vast number of experimental studies involving spectroscopic and other techniques as well as various theoretical studies, the article also discusses possible mechanisms for water splitting that are currently under consideration.”
“We report here, for the first time, the case of a 41-year-old man with both Machado-Joseph disease (MJD)/spinocerebellar selleck chemicals ataxia type 3 (SCA3) and myotonic dystrophy type 1. The patient noted dysarthria at 14 years of age and unsteady gait at 30 years of age. Similar sized

expansions of the CAG trinucleotide repeats in one allele of the ataxin-3 (ATXN3) gene were found in both the patient and his father, although in the other allele the length of the CAG repeats was shorter in the father compared with the patient. In the dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) gene the CTG repeats were much more expanded in the patient compared with his father. Thus it is possible that, in the farther, the short CTG repeat in the non-expanded ATXN3 allele delayed the onset of cerebellar symptoms, and/or that the expanded CMG repeat in the DMPK gene in the patient

accelerated the pathogenesis of MJD/SCA3. (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier B.V.”
“Several reports have shown liquid nitrogen containers as not being sterile. Microorganism transmission has been observed in different cells and tissues stored under this condition, but there is no data on contamination of stored human valves. We performed a survey on heart valve banking in Spain. Regarding the questionnaire, we have a complete drug discovery microbiological analysis of 304 thawed tissues prior to implant. this website In six cases positive culture results were observed. Patient follow-up did not reveal any adverse effects. Although some other possibilities should be stated, contamination of heart valves during storage in liquid nitrogen should be considered as a risk element in tissue banking. Strategies to asses and prevent microbial

transmission from liquid nitrogen to heart valve banking ought to be further developed.”
“Spectroscopic investigations of individual single-crystalline GaN nanowires with a lateral dimensions of similar to 30-90 nm were performed using the spatially resolved technique of electron energy-loss spectroscopy in conjunction with scanning transmission electron microscope showing a 2-angstrom electron probe. Positioning the electron probe upon transmission impact and at aloof setup with respect to the nanomaterials, we explored two types of surface modes intrinsic to GaN, surface exciton polaritons at similar to 8.3 eV (similar to 150 nm) and surface guided modes at 3.88 eV (similar to 320 nm), which are in visible/ultra-violet spectral regime above GaN bandgap of similar to 3.3 eV (similar to 375 nm) and difficult to access by conventional optical spectroscopies.

One of the mutations was present in 7 unrelated Korean patients

One of the mutations was present in 7 unrelated Korean patients. Reduced expression of VPS33B

and cellular phenotype was detected in fibroblasts from patients clinically DZNeP diagnosed with ARC with and without known VPS33B mutations. One mutation-negative patient was found to have normal mRNA and protein levels. This patient’s clinical condition improved and he is alive at the age of 2.5 years. Thus we show that all patients with a classical clinical course of ARC had decreased expression of VPS33B whereas normal VPS33B expression was associated with good prognosis despite initial diagnosis of ARC. (C) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Transplantation of human umbilical cord blood cells (HUCBC) produces reliable behavioral and morphological improvements in animal models of stroke. However, the mechanisms find more of action still have not been fully elucidated. The aim of the present study is the evaluation of potential neuroprotective effects produced by HUCBC in terms of reduced infarct volume and caspase-3-dependent cell death. Permanent middle cerebral

artery occlusion was induced in 90 spontaneously hypertensive rats. The animals were randomly assigned to the control group (n = 49) or the verum group (n = 41). The cell suspension (8 x 10(6) HUCBC per kilogram bodyweight) or vehicle solution was intravenously administered 24 h after stroke onset. Fifty subjects (n = 25/25) were sacrificed after 25, 48, 72 and 96 h, and brain specimens were removed for immunohistochemistry for MAP2, cleaved caspase-3 (casp3) and GFAP. Another 42 animals (n = 26/16) were sacrificed after 0, 6, 24, 36 and

48 h and their brains processed for quantitative PCR for casp3 and survivin. The infarct volume remained stable over the entire experimental period. However, cleaved casp3 activity increased significantly in the infarct border zone within the same time frame. Numerous cleaved casp3-positive cells were colocalized with the astrocytic marker GFAP, whereas cleavage of neuronal casp3 was observed rarely. Neither the infarct volume nor casp3 activity was significantly affected Dinaciclib by cell transplantation. Delayed systemic transplantation of HUCBC failed to produce neuroprotective effects in a permanent stroke model using premorbid subjects. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Current American Heart Association guidelines recommend against the performance of elective or primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) without on-site surgical backup (i.e. a class III and IIb recommendation respectively). Despite this, numerous centers have already implemented PCI programs with no on-site surgery backup (NSOS).\n\nMethods: To evaluate the necessity for on-site surgical backup (SOS) when performing PCI we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. English-language articles published from 1966 through December 2010 were retrieved using keyword searches of Medline and Scopus, supplemented by letters to authors and reviews of all bibliographies.

This finding suggests that the neural organisation underlying the

This finding suggests that the neural organisation underlying the exploitation of bifunctional muscle properties, in the natural context, constrains the system to maintain the “natural” coordination pattern in an altered dynamic environment, even at the cost of reduced biomechanical efficiency. We suggest an important role for afference from the imposed movement in promoting the “natural” pattern. Practical implications for the emerging field of robot-assisted therapy and rehabilitation are briefly mentioned.”
“DNA methylation of coding

regions, known as gene body methylation, is conserved across eukaryotic lineages. The function of body methylation is not known, but it may this website either prevent aberrant expression from intragenic promoters

or enhance the accuracy of splicing. Given these putative functions, we hypothesized that body-methylated genes would be both longer and more functionally important than unmethylated genes. To test these hypotheses, we reanalyzed single-base resolution bisulfite sequence data from Arabidopsis thaliana to differentiate body-methylated genes from unmethylated genes using a probabilistic approach. Contrasting genic characteristics between the two groups, we found that body-methylated genes tend to be longer and to be more functionally important, as measured by phenotypic effects of insertional mutants and by gene expression, than unmethylated genes. We also found that methylated genes HSP990 cell line evolve more slowly than unmethylated genes, despite the potential for increased mutation rates in methylated CpG dinucleotides. We propose that slower rates in body-methylated genes are a function

of higher selective constraint, lower nucleosome occupancy, and a lower proportion of CpG dinucleotides.”
“Current study determined, in sows, the accuracy of ultrasonography for in vivo (n = 8) and ex vivo (n = 7) evaluation of corpora lutea (CLs) and follicles >= 1.5 mm in size, by comparison with macroscopic findings in sliced ovaries. The accuracy for ex vivo detection AZD4547 molecular weight of follicles increased with follicle size (P < 0.05), being low for 1.5-1.9 mm follicles (65.9%) and higher for >= 6 mm follicles (93.3%); differences between ultrasonographic and macroscopic observations were significant only for follicles smaller than 3.9 mm (P < 0.05), due to underestimation. Ex vivo observation succeeded to detect presence or absence of CLs in all the ovaries; the efficiency for determining the exact number of CLs being 94.4%. The accuracy for in vivo detection of follicles also increased with follicle size (P < 0.05), dropping to values lower than 40% for 1.5-1.9 mm follicles; therefore, there were significant differences between ultrasonographic and macroscopic observations (P < 0.05). On the other hand, accuracy remained around 92% for >= 6 mm follicles.