In all cases, malolactic conversion was faster after yeast-bacterial co-inoculation and was completed in simultaneous treatments at pH values of 3.35-3.65, and consecutive treatments at pH 3.5 and 3.65. No statistically significant difference was observed among the final acetic acid concentrations among all inoculation and pH treatments, but there was a trend towards higher acetic acid residues in wines produced by co-inoculation, especially at high Anlotinib Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor pH values. Overall,
simultaneous AF/MLF allowed for greatly reduced fermentation times, but the must pH remained a strong factor for fermentation success and determined the final concentration of various wine components. The time point of inoculation influenced formation and degradation kinetics of organic acids and acetaldehyde considerably, and these are of relevance for vinification decisions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“Films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) were prepared with single and multiple electropolymerization steps, where the numbers of polymerization steps (n’s) were 3, 5, and 7, with identical experimental conditions and total polymerization times (tau’s). The electroactivity of the films prepared with multiple steps remained almost unaltered when n increased, with the ability of the films to store charge with n > 3 being
smaller than that of the films with similar thicknesses but derived from a single electrodeposition step. In contrast, STI571 mouse the stability of the films produced with n polymerization steps was significantly higher than that of the films derived from a single step with the same tau, with the difference between the two systems increasing with n, that is, tau used to yield the films. On the other hand, although the morphological and topological characteristics of the surface and the electrical conductivity were affected by the procedure used to produce the films, the organization of the polymer molecules in the crystalline phase, the thermal stability, and the electronic properties (ionization potential, electron affinity, and lowest pi-pi* transition energy) were practically identical in both cases.
(C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121:1982-1991, 2011″
“Knotted GDC-0973 mouse proteins, because of their ability to fold reversibly in the same topologically entangled conformation, are the object of an increasing number of experimental and theoretical studies. The aim of the present investigation is to assess, on the basis of presently available structural data, the extent to which knotted proteins are isolated instances in sequence or structure space, and to use comparative schemes to understand whether specific protein segments can be associated to the occurrence of a knot in the native state. A significant sequence homology is found among a sizeable group of knotted and unknotted proteins. In this family, knotted members occupy a primary sub-branch of the phylogenetic tree and differ from unknotted ones only by additional loop segments.