In the same time, the interactions between hydroxyether and water

In the same time, the interactions between hydroxyether and water increase. The evolution of the macroscopic behavior

of the bonded assemblies is due to this combination observed at different scales. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 115:1208-1214, 2010″
“Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is a rare mesenchymal malignancy typically found in the extremities or chest of young adults. We present a case of an alveolar soft part sarcoma arising in the endocervix of a 38-year-old premenopausal woman. This cancer was treated by extrafascial hysterectomy. No evidence of metastatic disease was found after extensive surgical staging. Since treatment, she has since remained disease-free for more than 5 years without additional therapy. This is the second case of ASPS arising in the endocervix of which we are aware. Our observations suggest simple hysterectomy suffices for optimal selleckchem clinical management of cervical ASPS and that surgical staging of this disease offers little prognostic benefit.”
“Androgenetic-biparental

mosaicism (ABM) denotes an embryo in which a subset of cells contains a diploid chromosomal complement derived entirely from the father. Such embryos have a high incidence of placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) and paternal imprinting disorders because the androgenetic cells have pangenomic paternal uniparental disomy. Uniparental disomy Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor also poses a theoretical risk for paternally transmitted autosomal recessive disorders, if both chromosomes of each autosomal pair are identical (isodisomy). We present the 1st example of a recessive disorder, renal-hepatic-pancreatic

dysplasia, in a pregnancy complicated by PMD and ABM. Androgeneticbiparental mosaicism was demonstrated in fetal DNA, extracted from multiple organs, by quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based methods that detected allelic imbalances at the differentially methylated SNRPN locus (chromosome 15); polymorphic short tandem repeat microsatellite markers located on chromosomes 4, 7, 8, 13, 18, and 21; and single nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosomes 1 and 19. Laser capture microdissection was performed to isolate specific placental and renal cell populations and document selective enrichment of androgenetic cells in the stroma of PMD and GW4869 mw the epithelium of renal cysts. Mutational analysis of coding sequences did not reveal any mutations in NPHP3, a ciliopathy gene implicated in some cases of renal-hepatic-pancreatic dysplasia. Nonetheless, the fetal phenotype and laser capture data support the model of a paternally transmitted autosomal recessive disorder, which occurred because of ABM.”
“The local electronic and structural as well as the macroscopic magnetic properties of K3Cr2Fe3F15 have been studied between room temperature and 4 K. The system has been found to be isostructural with ferroelectric and weakly ferrimagnetic K3Fe5F15 above the ferroelectric transition temperature T-c.


“Background and Purpose: Ascertaining the optimal depth of


“Background and Purpose: Ascertaining the optimal depth of dilator progression is a crucial factor during tract dilation in percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Dilation is generally guided under fluoroscopy, ultrasonography, or combination of both techniques, and it is still difficult to prevent overdilation causing perforation and vascular injury or underdilation causing difficulty in establishment of access. Thus, improvements

in dilation technique bears clinical significance. Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility in an animal model of using the “”visual dilator system” for optimal percutaneous tract dilation under real-time visual guidance.

Materials and Methods: The visual this website dilator system consisted of a transparent hollow dilator made of polyvinyl chloride and a rigid ureteroscope inserted within its lumen. The ureteroscope was connected to a standard endoscopic camera system. The dilator system backloaded with an access sheath was passed over a guidewire to dilate the tract and position the access sheath under

visual guidance. Saline was used as GSI-IX in vivo irrigation to maintain clarity during dilation. The dilation technique was implemented to establish percutaneous access tract in six PCNL simulator models made from fresh porcine kidney placed inside an eviscerated chicken carcass and four female swine (eight kidneys) to experimentally evaluate its feasibility and efficacy.

Results: All tracts were successfully established with dilation through the CHIR 99021 intervening tissue layers, approach into the target calix, as well as access sheath placement being visually monitored through the dilator wall to confirm accuracy. All procedures were free

of dilation-related complications such as collecting system perforation, excessive bleeding (in-vivo model), or loss of access. The limited number of animal models and lack of randomized comparative study with other dilator modalities were major drawbacks of the study.

Conclusions: The study demonstrates feasibility of precutaneous access tract dilation using a Visual dilator system. This technique can provide visual confirmation of accuracy in dilation to improve safety and efficacy of the procedure.”
“Aspergillus fumigatus is a filamentous fungus that produces abundant pigmented conidia. Several fungal components have been identified as virulence factors, including melanin; however, the impact of these factors in a repeated exposure model resembling natural environmental exposures remains unknown. This study examined the role of fungal melanin in the stimulation of pulmonary immune responses using immunocompetent BALB/c mice in a multiple exposure model. It compared conidia from wild-type A. fumigatus to two melanin mutants of the same strain, Delta arp2 (tan) or Delta alb1 (white). Mass spectrometry-based analysis of conidial extracts demonstrated that there was little difference in the protein fingerprint profiles between the three strains.

Conclusions: The heavy reliance on informal routes of communicati

Conclusions: The heavy reliance on informal routes of communication and integration by patients and providers emphasizes the urgent need for change in order to improve coordinating mechanisms for hospital community oncologic care. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Ovary is located inside peritoneal cavity. However, a huge malignant ovarian tumor CA3 solubility dmso may get involved with retroperitoneal structures.

We reported a case of a 70-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history

of increased abdominal distention and was subsequently found to have a giant abdominal mass. A huge low signal intensity mass with the involvement of retroperitoneal structures was showed on MRI. At operation, we found that the tumor pushed mesentery and small bowel upwards with the encasement of 10 cm jejunum and was fixed posteriorly to vena cava, aorta, right iliac Bcl-2 inhibitor vessels, and right

ureter. It was dissected from the retroperitoneal structures and resected en bloc with the involved jejunum.

Although ovary is located inside peritoneal cavity, a huge malignant ovarian tumor may get involved with retroperitoneal structures. So, great care should be taken not to injury the retroperitoneal structures as vena cava, mesenteric vessels, iliac vessels, and ureters.”
“High-strength and high-toughness nanofibers were made from polyimide 6F-PI through PRT062607 purchase electrospinning. The 6F-PI had a backbone made up with 3,3′,4, 4′-biphenyl-tetracarboxylic dianhydride and 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]-hexafluoro-propane residues. Electrospun 6F-PI precursor nanofibers were collected in the form of aligned fiber sheet on the rim of a rotating disc. Heating process converted the precursor fiber sheets to 6F-PI nanofiber sheets. Gel permeation chromatography and Ostwald Viscometer were used to determine the molecular weight and the molecular weight distribution of the 6F-PI precursor, i.e., the 6F-polyamic acid. Scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray scattering, tensile testing, dynamic mechanical analysis, thermogravimetric

analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry were employed to characterize the surface morphology, thermal stability, and mechanical properties of the 6F-PI nanofiber sheets. Experimental results show that the nanofibers were well aligned in the sheets with fiber diameters ranging from 50 to 300 nm. The nanofiber sheets were stable to over 450 degrees C, with a glass transition at 265.2 degrees C. The uniaxial tension test showed that the 6F-PI nanofiber sheets had superior mechanical properties. The ultimate tensile strength, modulus, toughness, and elongation to break of the 6F-PI nanofiber sheets are respectively, 308 +/- 14 MPa, 2.08 +/- 0.25 GPa, 365 +/- 20 MPa, and 202 +/- 7%.

We studied the expression of D2-40 by immunohistochemistry to det

We studied the expression of D2-40 by immunohistochemistry to determine if this marker could reliably differentiate these neoplasms AZD4547 from each other. A total of 49 cutaneous tumors, including 22 cases of trichoepitheliomas and 27 cases of BCC were examined. Of the 27 cases of BCC,

18 cases were located in the head and neck area, 5 on upper extremities, and 4 on the back. Of the 22 cases of trichoepitheliomas, all were from the head and neck area. D2-40 expression was present in 21/22 cases of trichoepitheliomas; 11 cases were diffusely positive (50%), 10 cases were focally positive (45.5%), and 1 case was negative (4.5%). D2-40 expression was present in 6/27 cases of BCC; 2 cases were diffusely positive (7.4%), 4 cases were focally positive (14.8%), and 21 cases were negative (77.8%). In summary, D2-40 expression was only weakly and selleck chemical focally positive in BCC (22.2% of cases) and diffusely and weakly positive in trichoepitheliomas (95.5% of cases). The sensitivity and specificity of D2-40 immunoreactivity to separate trichoepitheliomas from BCCs

was 95.5% and 77.8%, respectively. This data suggests that D2-40 expression could be a useful potential marker to distinguish BCCs from trichoepitheliomas, especially when there is a high index of histologic suspicion for either of these two tumors. Our results also suggest that BCC can show differentiation toward the outer root sheath of hair follicles.”
“Object. The debate addressed in this article is that of surgical treatment methods for a neuroma-in-continuity. The authors of this study chose to test the hypothesis that more severe nerve injuries,

as distinguished by < ABT-737 in vitro 50% conduction across a neuroma-in-continuity, could be treated with neuroma resection and grafting, whereas less severe nerve injuries, with > 50% conduction across the neuroma, could be treated with neurolysis alone.

Methods. The goal of this study was to compare preoperative and postoperative Active Movement Scale (AMS) scores in children with upper trunk brachial plexus birth injuries treated with neurolysis alone if the neuroma’s conductivity was > 50% on intraoperative nerve testing. Seventeen patients (7 male, 10 female) met the criteria for inclusion in this study. Surgery was done when the patients were an average of 10 months old (range 6-19 months). The authors analyzed AMS scores from the preoperative assessment, 1-year postoperative follow-up visit, and subsequent follow-up assessment as close to 3 years after surgery as possible (referred to in this paper as > 2-year postoperative scores).

Results. Comparison of preoperative and 1-year follow-up data showed significant improvement in shoulder abduction, flexion, external rotation, and internal rotation; elbow flexion and supination; and wrist extension.

Clinical presentation included asthenia, insomnia, hypertension,

Clinical presentation included asthenia, insomnia, hypertension, acne, and hyperpigmentation developing in a period

of two months. Laboratory and imaging testing revealed hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypercortisolemia, high ACTH, nonsuppresion by 8 mg dexamethasone, and a normal pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). With a high clinical suspicion of EAS, combined medical treatment was started but was unsuccessful. Bilateral adrenalectomy selleckchem could not be performed given the patient’s rapid deterioration. Immunostained tissue from the original tumor was positive for synaptophysin.

Conclusion: This rare case of EAS illustrates the challenge that this condition may confer regarding diagnosis and management.”
“BACKGROUND: Room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are attractive alternatives to environmentally unfriendly volatile organic solvents. Partitioning is one of the most important and fundamental properties of a chemical, and the octanol/water partition coefficient is widely used to measure the tendency of a chemical to cross biological membranes. LY2603618 Cell Cycle inhibitor However, there is very limited information on the concentration dependence of the partition coefficients of ILs. This study investigated the octanol/water partitioning of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ([bmim]) ILs containing either hexafluorophosphate ([PF(6)])

or bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]amide ([Tf(2)N]) over a wide range of IL concentrations of three to five orders of magnitude.

RESULTS: It was found that the apparent partition coefficients of the ILs increased with increasing IL concentration. A model based

on the ionic nature of ILs was proposed to explain this behaviour, and the results showed a good fit with the experimental data. The intrinsic partition coefficients Lazertinib solubility dmso and dissociation constants of the ILs were determined using the equations from the proposed model. The differences in the intrinsic partition parameter values between the two ILs showed a good correlation with other physicochemical properties.

CONCLUSIONS: The present study clearly shows that the octanol/water partition coefficients of ILs increase with increasing IL concentration owing to the formation of ion pairs. By using the proposed partition model, it was possible to determine the intrinsic partition coefficients of ILs, and it was found that the apparent partition coefficients of ILs converge to the intrinsic partition coefficients of the ionic species and ion pairs of ILs with decreasing and increasing IL concentration respectively. (C) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Contents The establishment of equine pregnancy is a unique and long process during which a series of physical and possibly biochemical interactions are required between the conceptus and uterus. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of inhibin/activin subunits in the uterus during early pregnancy.

4 % The longest follow-up was 3 years with a mean of 57 % EWL

4 %. The longest follow-up was 3 years with a mean of 57 % EWL.

Laparoscopic gastric plication is still in its infancy. Prospective randomized studies comparing gastric plication to other well established bariatric procedures are needed to prove the reliability and metabolic effectiveness of such new procedure.”
“Purpose: To compare color Doppler twinkling artifact and B-mode ultrasonography in detecting kidney stones.

Patients and Methods: Nine patients with recent

CT scans prospectively underwent Nutlin-3 manufacturer B-mode and twinkling artifact color Doppler ultrasonography on a commercial ultrasound machine. Video segments of the upper pole, interpolar area, and lower pole were created, randomized, and independently reviewed by three radiologists. Receiver operator characteristics were determined.

Results: There were 32 stones in 18 kidneys with a mean stone size of 8.9 +/- 7.5 mm. B-mode ultrasonography had 71% sensitivity, 48% specificity, 52% positive predictive value, and 68% negative predictive value, while twinkling artifact Doppler ultrasonography had 56% sensitivity, 74% specificity, 62% selleck chemicals positive

predictive value, and 68% negative predictive value.

Conclusions: When used alone, B-mode is more sensitive, but twinkling artifact is more specific in detecting kidney stones. This information may help users employ twinkling and B-mode to identify stones and developers to improve signal processing to harness the fundamental acoustic differences to ultimately improve stone detection.”
“Rotaviruses (RVs) were found to cause human disease in 1973. They are the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children of <5 years of age worldwide and they are the cause of approximately half a million deaths each year. The impact of the disease on families and society (increased health care costs, lost productivity) is extremely significant and the incidence of gastroenteritis (RVGE) is similar both in industrialized and in developing countries. Virtually, all the children will be Infected by RVs before the ages of

3-5 years with the highest incidence rate registered between YM155 6-24 months of age while the greatest risk for developing severe disease by RV occurs under 12 months of age. Clinically, the infection can vary from asymptomatic and sub clinic forms, which are more common in older children and adults, to acute gastroenteritis with fever, vomiting and self-limiting watery diarrhea which persist for 3 to 8 days. Severe forms with profuse diarrhea accompanied by vomiting and fever with risk of dehydration not adequately and rapidly correct can be fatal, mainly in developing countries. Hygienic-sanitary measures are unable to limit the diffusion of this infection and vaccination at present seems the only effective system to reduce the burden of the disease, human and economic costs related to RVGE. Since the 1980s research has focused on the development of RV vaccines.

Data were collected at six French

Data were collected at six French Selleck HDAC inhibitor centers from patients with metastatic or local AGC who received docetaxel, fluorouracil, leucovorin, or oxaliplatin (TEF) as first-line treatment. TEF

was administered as follows: docetaxel (50 mg/m(2)), oxaliplatin (85 mg/m(2)), and leucovorin (40 mg/m(2)) on day 1, and 5-FU continuous infusion for 48 h (2400 mg/m(2)) every 2 weeks.

Forty-one patients were enrolled. Performance status was grade 0 and 1 in respectively 27 and 58 % of patients; 17 patients had adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction; 37 patients had metastatic disease, 22 had a poorly differentiated or diffuse type. Objective response rate was 66 %, with a complete response in two patients (5 %). Median progression-free survival and overall survival were respectively 6.3 and 12.1 months. Tolerability was acceptable with no treatment-related deaths. The most frequent grade 3-4 toxicities were neutropenia

(30 %) and neuropathy (12.5 %). Curative NVP-LDE225 manufacturer intent surgery after response to TEF was performed in seven patients (17 %).

TEF is an effective first-line treatment with an acceptable toxicity profile for patients with AGC. It may allow curative resection in initially unresectable patients. TEF should now be evaluated in prospective randomized trials.”
“Purpose of review

To summarize recent reports on the effects of low oxygen on the undifferentiated phenotype and differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs).

Recent findings

The oxygen level to which ESCs are exposed is an important environmental parameter. Under conditions maintaining the undifferentiated phenotype, low oxygen reduces spontaneous Captisol supplier differentiation of human ESCs but reduces pluripotency gene expression in mouse ESCs, although reports are conflicting. Differentiation under low oxygen increases generation of neurons, cardiomyocytes, hematopoietic progenitors,, endothelial cells,

and chondrocytes. Many of the effects of low oxygen have been attributed to action by hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha). The oxygen level in the gas phase (p(O2gas)) is often different than that experienced by the cells (p(O2cell)) and is unrecognzed by investigators, which makes interpretation of the literature difficult. This difference increases with high cell densities, high cellular oxygen consumption rates, and large medium heights. The problem can be addressed by use of oxygen-permeable culture dishes and by estimation of p(O2cell) with mathematical models.

Summary

Low oxygen influences aspects of ESC pluripotency and differentiation. A better understanding of its effects and mechanism along with better estimation an control of p(O2cell) is important for applying low oxygen culture to regenerative medicine applications.”
“With the advent of time-dependent thrombolytic therapy for ischemic stroke, it has become increasingly important to differentiate transient ischemic attack (TIA) from minor stroke patients after symptom onset quickly.

Skin infections were the presenting

clinical manifestatio

Skin infections were the presenting

clinical manifestations in two-thirds of GAS and GGS bacteraemias.”
“Arsenic is a well-known human carcinogen. It also impairs immune functions and activation in many aspects. However, only a small portion of arsenic-exposed population develops skin abnormalities, including ACY-738 cell line Bowen’s disease and skin cancers. Differential immune activation among the individuals might account for the different susceptibilities. In patients with arsenic-induced Bowen’s disease, there is a selective CD4 T-cell apoptosis through tumor necrosis factor-alpha pathway, decrease in macrophage differentiation and phagocytosis, reduced Langerhans cell numbers and dendrites,

altered regulatory T-cell distribution, and other immune alterations. Several lines of evidence from mouse and fish studies also confirmed the potent and multifaceted effects of arsenic in the immune system. The molecular bases of immunosuppression by arsenic in lymphocytes may include chromosomal and DNA abnormalities, decreased T-cell receptor activation, and the cellular status of oxidation and methylation. This article also reviews the causative and differential role of selective CD4 cell apoptosis and the carcinogenesis of arsenic-induced Bowen’s disease. Copyright (C) 2011, Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.”
“Polymer materials with improved properties can be obtained through polymer blends. Bromosporine order As a polymer mixture is generally KPT-8602 immiscible and incompatible, it is necessary to develop new methods to improve the interfacial adhesion. The aim of this work is to find formulations and associated processes to upgrade engineering polystyrene (PS) and polycarbonate (PC) polymer blends with the objective

of using the best process-formulation couple. In this study, blends of PS/PC were prepared in molten medium using reactive extrusion after UV-irradiation. The effects of UV-irradiation on some properties of blends under molten medium were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The data showed that the presence of polycarbonate in the blend increased the tensile strength and elongation at break with respect to pure PS. The mechanical properties of the blends were improved after irradiation. All irradiated blends are thermally more stable than those nonirradiated. Chemical changes can be clearly seen in FTIR spectra through two bands assigned to C=O and OH groups. The mutual influence between the PS/PC polymer blends compositions during UV-irradiation was studied. PS and PC have different photo-mechanisms due to the larger UV absorption of polystyrene and formation of more stable tertiary carbon radicals. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

The model compound 4 was synthesized by the interaction of 1 mol

The model compound 4 was synthesized by the interaction of 1 mol of monomers

3 with 2 mol of phenylisocyanate in pyridine, and the structure was confirmed by correct elemental and spectral analyses. The resulting polymers were characterized by elemental and spectral analyses besides solubility and viscometry measurements. The thermal properties of those polymers were evaluated by TGA, DTG, and DTA measurements and correlated to their structural units. In addition, the morphological properties of a selected example were tested by SEM, and the electrical properties Sotrastaurin of these polymers were measured. On the other hand, the corrosion inhibition properties of selected example of polyurea derivatives were carried Out on steel in 0.5M H(2)SO(4) at 40 degrees C giving cathodic inhibition. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym https://www.selleckchem.com/products/AG-014699.html Sci 112: 620-628, 2009″
“The polio epidemic in Copenhagen in 1952 was a significant stimulus to the development of Intensive Care. Eighty-five percent of the patients with respiratory involvement died despite the use of Cuirass negative pressure ventilators. After some controversy Ibsen, an anesthetist, was consulted. He found that many patients

were dying with CO2 retention. He advocated tracheostomy, suction, and ventilation. Owing to the lack of positive pressure ventilators, this was undertaken by students who contributed 167 000 h of BMS-345541 inhibitor hand ventilation. The mortality decreased to 25%. Anesthetists, having special experience with ventilation, became the leaders in the field as Intensive Care developed.”
“The structures and thermoelectric properties of mCu(5)Zn(3) center dot nZn(4)Sb(3) with multiphase coexistence are reported. Rietveld analysis reveals that at least 92.3% wt % beta-Zn4Sb3 phase can be obtained with only small quantities of ZnSb and Cu5Zn8 phases precipitated after proper Cu5Zn3 addition. Measurements indicate that although the

beta-Zn4Sb3 phase plays a determining role in controlling the transport properties involving the Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity, the impurity phases Cu5Zn8 and ZnSb with a crooked riverlike and intertwined tree stump morphologies, respectively, are still of great significance to tune the thermoelectric performance. The highest ZT value of 0.84 can be obtained for the alloy mCu(5)Zn(3) center dot nZn(4)Sb(3) (m/n=1/200) at 631 K, approximately 1.8 times that of undoped beta-Zn4Sb3, proving that a good combination between the transports of carriers and phonons can be achieved if a proper dopant is introduced in the Zn4Sb3 matrix. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3171924]“
“The direct-irradiation-induced grafting of acrylamide onto polypropylene films and polystyrene films with crosslinking epichlorohydrin (Epi) as a spacer was studied.

Subsequently, we transplanted the 2 tumour cell lines orthotopica

Subsequently, we transplanted the 2 tumour cell lines orthotopically into female nude mice to examine their tumorigenicity and metastatic potential. Interestingly, despite sharing the same origin, only CHMp-5b cells metastasized to the lung. Our results indicate that a comparison between these 2 cell lines at the molecular level will help us understand mechanisms of tumour progression, especially in the context of distant metastases originating from canine mammary gland tumours. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Urinary catheterisation following vaginal prolapse surgery causes inconvenience for patients, risk of urinary tract infections and potentially longer

hospitalisation. Possibly, practice variation exists concerning diagnosis and management of abnormal postvoid residual (PVR) volume implying suboptimal treatment for certain subgroups.

Nationwide questionnaire-based Ro-3306 research buy survey.

Post-operatively, Thiazovivin price 77% performed transurethral indwelling catheterisation, 12% suprapubic catheterisation and 11% intermittent catheterisation. Catheterisation was applied 3 days (1-7 days) following

anterior repair and 1 day (1-3 days) following all other procedures. The median cut-off point for abnormal PVR was 150 mL (range 50-250 mL). Treatment of abnormal PVR consisted mostly of prolonging transurethral indwelling catheterisation for 2 days (range 1-5 days; 57%), 29% by intermittent Roscovitine clinical trial and 12% by suprapubic catheterisation. Antibiotics were administered by 21% either routinely or based on symptoms only.

Due to insufficient evidence and suboptimal implementation of available evidence, practice variation in catheterisation regimens is high.”
“Thick film (>= 5 mu m thick) semiconducting polymer diodes incorporating poly(triarylamine) (PTAA)

have been produced and applied as direct x-ray detectors. Experiments determined that a rectifying diode behavior persists when increasing the thickness of the active layer above typical thin film thicknesses (<1 mu m), and the electrical conduction mechanism of the diodes has been identified. Direct current and photoconductivity measurements on indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate)/PTAA/metal diodes confirm that carrier conduction occurs via a Poole-Frenkel mechanism. The energy band structure of diodes (having gold or aluminum top electrodes) has been elucidated and used to explain the resulting electrical characteristics. Theoretical calculations show that, upon irradiation with x-rays, the diode quantum efficiency increases with increasing polymer film thickness. The diodes produced here display characteristics similar to their thin film analogs, meaning that they may be operated in a similar way and therefore may be useful for radiation dosimetry applications.