granulosus in the locality Questionnaire survey revealed that 17

granulosus in the locality. Questionnaire survey revealed that 17.2% of the respondents were aware of hydatidosis but non of them were

knowledgeable on its transmission. Up to 84.4% of the respondents had domestic ruminants and donkeys, while 89.1% had dogs. Of the households with dogs, only 19.3% had their dogs dewormed at least once in life time. Most of the households (87.7%) had their dogs managed freely and 77.2% of the respondents reported school children to be the closest friends of dogs in the family. The prevalence of E. granulosus infection in wildlife and the possible relationship of the domestic cycle to the sylvatic cycle operating in the same area are unknown and need to be studied.”
“Context: Irisin, a recently identified hormone, has APR-246 order been proposed to regulate energy homeostasis and obesity in mice. Whether irisin levels are associated

with risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), cardiometabolic variables, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in humans remains unknown. Objective: Our objective was to assess the associations between baseline serum irisin levels and MetS, cardiometabolic variables, and CVD risk. Design, Setting, and Subjects: We conducted a comparative cross-sectional evaluation of baseline circulating levels of the novel hormone irisin and the established adipokine adiponectin with AZD8186 MetS, cardiometabolic variables, and C188-9 CVD risk in a sample of 151 subjects. Results: Baseline irisin levels were significantly higher

in subjects with MetS than in subjects without MetS. Irisin was associated negatively with adiponectin (r = -0.4, P smaller than .001) and positively with body mass index (r = 0.22, P = .008), systolic (r = 0.17, P = .04) and diastolic (r = 0.27, P = .001) blood pressure, fasting glucose (r = 0.25, P = .002), triglycerides (r = 0.25, P = .003), and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (r = 0.33, P smaller than .001). After adjustment for potential confounders, including body mass index, subjects in the highest tertile of irisin levels were more likely to have MetS (odds ratio [OR] = 9.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.66-33.44), elevated fasting blood glucose (OR = 5.80, 95% CI = 1.72-19.60), high triglycerides (OR = 3.89, 95% CI = 1.16-13.03), and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR = 3.30, 95% CI = 1.18-9.20). Irisin was independently associated with homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance and general Framingham risk profile in multiple linear regression analyses after adjustment for confounders. Adiponectin demonstrated the expected associations with outcomes.

Furthermore, the magnitude of NK cell reduction correlated with t

Furthermore, the magnitude of NK cell reduction correlated with the degree of TBI severity at several time points. That is, NK cell population size was independently associated with lower Glasgow Coma Scale scores. In addition, at some time points, a positive selleck chemical correlation was found between the NK cell counts and Glasgow Outcome Scale scores. Our results indicate that TBI induces a reduction in the number of NK cells, and the magnitude of the reduction appears to parallel the severity of TBI.”

receptors are ATP-gated nonselective cation channels highly permeable to calcium that contribute to nociception and inflammatory responses. The P2X(4) subtype, upregulated in activated microglia, is thought to play a critical selleck chemicals role in the development of tactile allodynia following peripheral nerve injury. Posttranslational regulation of P2X(4) function is crucial to the cellular mechanisms of neuropathic pain, however it remains

poorly understood. Here, we show that the phosphoinositides PI(4,5)P(2) (PIP(2)) and PI(3,4,5)P(3) (PIP(3)), products of phosphorylation by wortmannin-sensitive phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases, can modulate the function of native and recombinant P2X(4) receptor channels. In BV-2 microglial cells, depleting the intracellular levels of PIP(2) and PIP(3) with wortmannin significantly decreased P2X(4) current amplitude and P2X(4)-mediated calcium entry measured in patch clamp recordings and ratiometric ion imaging, respectively. Wortmannin-induced depletion of phosphoinositides in Xenopus oocytes decreased the Selleck Pevonedistat current amplitude of P2X(4) responses by converting ATP into a partial agonist. It also decreased their recovery from desensitization and affected their kinetics. Injection of phosphoinositides in wortmannin-treated oocytes reversed these effects and application of PIP(2) on excised inside-out macropatches rescued P2X(4) currents from rundown. Moreover, we report the direct interaction of phospholipids with the proximal C-terminal domain of P2X(4) subunit (Cys(360)-Val(375)) using an in vitro binding assay. These results demonstrate novel regulatory roles of the major

signaling phosphoinositides PIP(2) and PIP(3) on P2X(4) function through direct channel-lipid interactions.”
“The occurrence of various Vibrio species in lobster hemolymph from the Persian Gulf was studied. A total number of 60 lobsters (Panulirus homarus) were caught from south coast of Iran and were studied to identify Vibrio spp. in hemolymph. Four Vibrio species including Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio mimicus were identified using biochemical and molecular methods. Six lobsters (10%) contained one or more Vibrio spp. as 4 samples contained V. alginolyticus, one contained V. vulnificus and one species contained both V. harveyi and V. mimicus and none of samples contained V. parahemolyticus and V. cholera.

The study shows that the results of CF and QCF are similar Avera

The study shows that the results of CF and QCF are similar. Average SSB and catch during simulation years would be higher if fishing mortality of FAD-associated purse seining was reduced rapidly. The banning or rapid reduction of purse seining with FAD resulted in a mean catch, and catch in the last simulation year, higher than that of the base case in which no change was made to the purse seine fishery. This could be caused by

growth overfishing by purse seine fisheries with FADs according to the per-recruit analysis. These differences would be more obvious when stock productivity was low. Transferring efforts of FAD-associated purse seining to longline fisheries is also not feasible. Our study suggests that changes are necessary to improve the performance of the current management strategy.”
“The patient-physician encounter is the pivotal starting point of any healthcare TH-302 ic50 delivery, but it is subject to multiple process breakdowns and prevalent suboptimal performance. An overview of the techniques and components of a successful encounter valid for every setting and readily

applicable is presented, stressing 7 rules: (1) ensuring optimal environment, tools, and teamwork; (2) viewing each encounter not only as a cognitive/biomedical challenge, but also as a personal one, and a learning opportunity; (3) adopting an attitude of curiosity, concentration, compassion, and commitment, and maintaining a systematic, GSK3235025 price orderly approach; (4) “simple is beautiful”-making the most of the basic clinical data and their many unique advantages;

(5) minding “the silent dimension”-being attentive to the patient’s identity and emotions; (6) following the “Holy Trinity” of gathering all information, consulting databases/colleagues, and tailoring gained knowledge to the individual patient; and (7) using the encounter as a “window of opportunity” to further the patient’s health-not just the major problem, by addressing screening and prevention; promoting health literacy and shared decision- making; and establishing proper follow-up. Barriers to implementation Androgen Receptor Antagonist cell line identified can be overcome by continuous educational interventions. A high-quality encounter sets a virtuous cycle of patient-provider interaction and results in increasing satisfaction, adherence, and improved health outcomes. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: To compare quantitative computed tomography (CT) analysis and single-indicator thermodilution to measure pulmonary edema in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Method: Ten patients with ARDS were included. All underwent spiral CT of the thorax for estimating gas content of lung (GV(CT)), tissue volume of lung (TVCT), tissue volume index (TVI), mean radiographic attenuation (CTmean) for the whole lung and gas-to-tissue ratio (g/t).

We studied 16 bacterial and archaeal

We studied 16 bacterial and archaeal AZ 628 phyla, representing a dataset of 12,000

gene families distributed in 336 genomes. Our results show that, in most phyla, LGT provides an abundant phylogenetic signal on the pattern of species diversification and that this signal is robust to the choice of gene families under study. We also find that LGT brings an abundant signal on the location of the root of species trees, which has been previously overlooked. Our results quantify the great variety of gene transfer rates among lineages of the tree of life and provide strong support for the “complexity hypothesis,” which states that genes whose products participate to macromolecular protein complexes are relatively resistant to transfer.”
“Through a

prospective comparison of patients with vertebral fractures and normal population, we PF-00299804 supplier illustrate effect of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) upon projection of load distribution changes.\n\nVertebroplasty group (36 symptomatic patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures) was evaluated on an electronic baropodometer registering projection of weight bearing areas on feet. Load distribution between right and left foot (including rear-front of the same foot) during standing and walking was recorded and compared before (group V1) and the day after (group V2) PV. Control group (30 healthy asymptomatic volunteers-no surgery record) were evaluated on the same baropodometer.\n\nMean value of load distribution difference between rear-front of the same foot was 9.45 +/- A 6.79 % (54.72-45.28 %) upon standing and 14.76 +/- A 7.09

% (57.38-42.62 %) upon walking in the control group. Respective load distribution values before PV were 16.52 +/- A 11.23 and 30.91 +/- A 19.26 % and after PV were 10.08 +/- A 6.26 and 14.25 +/- A 7.68 % upon standing and walking GSK461364 respectively. Mean value of load distribution variation between the two feet was 6.36 and 14.6 % before and 4.62 and 10.4 % after PV upon standing and walking respectively. Comparison of load distribution variation (group V1-V2, group V1-control group) is statistically significant. Comparison of load distribution variation (group V2-control group) is not statistically significant. Comparison of load distribution variation among the two feet is statistically significant during walking but not statistically significant during standing.\n\nThere is a statistically significant difference when comparing load distribution variation prior vertebroplasty and that of normal population. After vertebroplasty, this difference normalizes in a statistically significant way. PV is efficient on equilibrium-load distribution improvement as well.

“Objective: To describe responses to the questions “Do you

“Objective: To describe responses to the questions “Do you have concerns about your child’s behavior? Development? Learning?” among parents seeking pediatric

care, and to analyze their correspondence to formal screening questionnaires. Methods: Of 465 parents of children aged 3 to 65 months recruited at pediatric primary care practices in Greater Boston, 451 provided complete data for analysis. After completing a questionnaire that asked whether they had any or all of these concerns, parents filled out a developmental screener (Ages and Stages Questionnaire-3) and a behavioral screener (Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social-Emotional). NU7441 nmr Results: One hundred eight parents (24%) reported having at least 1 concern about their child. Greater child age, male gender, and lower family income were associated with

more concerns about development, behavior, and learning. Moderate agreement was found between parents’ concerns and their responses selleck chemicals llc on screening instruments, but among parents who identified no concerns, 18% were identified as at risk on one or both screening tests. Compared with children who were not identified on either screener, parents of children identified only on the behavioral screener were more likely to have concerns about behavior and parents of children identified on both screeners were more likely to have noted concerns about both behavior and development. No type of concern was associated with identification on the developmental screener alone. Conclusion: Parents’ self-report of concerns showed moderate agreement with the results of developmental and behavioral screening instruments. Agreement was higher for behavioral concerns than for developmental concerns.”
“A cyclic product that forms spontaneously from peptides that contain a penultimate Asp, Asn or isoAsp residue at the N-terminus has been characterized. This 2,5-diketopiperazine derivative forms under

physiological conditions and is stable, showing little degradation even following heating at 60 CT99021 in vitro degrees C. A mechanism for its formation from Asn and Asp peptides is proposed that involves a succinimide or isoaspartate intermediate. A diketo-piperazine-modified peptide was also detected in human lens extracts. Since peptides that contain the diketopiperazine moiety are not readily hydrolysed by leucine aminopeptidase, it is hypothesized that proteins and peptides modified in this way in the body may not readily be digested by the normal proteolytic machinery of cells.”
“Purpose: Currently, mass spectrometry has become an effective method for the qualitative analysis of plant-derived samples. Precursor and product ions can be obtained by tandem mass spectrometry, supplying rich information for determining the structural formulas of compounds.

In the present study, we investigated the effect of two represent

In the present study, we investigated the effect of two representative dietary compounds, quercetin and myricetin, on plasma and tissue levels of several PG products in normal Sprague-Dawley rats. We found that these two dietary bioflavonoids could strongly stimulate the formation of PG products in vivo in a time-dependent manner, and the stimulatory effect of these two bioflavonoids was dose-dependent with a unique biphasic pattern. At lower doses ( < 0.3 mg/kg b.w.), they strongly stimulated the formation of PGE(2), but at higher doses ( > 0.3 mg/kg

b.w.), there was a dose-dependent reduction WH-4-023 of the stimulatory effect. These results provide support for the hypothesis that some of the bioflavonoids are naturally occurring physiological co-substrates for the cyclooxygenases in vivo. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Kenaf is an important fiber

crop worldwide. it was recently introduced to South Africa as a commercial fiber crop. The aim of this study was to deter-mine how different environments and seasons influence stalk yield. Nine kenaf cultivars from various countries selleck products were analysed in two environments, over two consecutive seasons, where one location was irrigated and the other not. Data were recorded for total fresh yield, defoliated stalk yield and dry stalk yield. Yield stability was analysed with four different statistical models. The dry stalk yield varied from 15.33 to 17.78 ton/ha. El Salvador and Tainung 2 had high dry stalk yields in the favourable environments, but Tainung 2 did not have stable yield across all trials. Everglades 41 and El Salvador were

the most stable of the varieties Taselisib price across both environments and seasons. El Salvador was the cultivar that had the highest and most stable dry stalk yield in the two seasons and two locations in South Africa, and should perform well in commercial production. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“We assembled a total of 297,239 Gossypium hirsutum (Gh, a tetraploid cotton, AADD) expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences that were available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database, with reference to the recently published G. raimondii (Gr, a diploid cotton, DD) genome, and obtained 49,125 UniGenes. The average lengths of the UniGenes were increased from 804 and 791 bp in two previous EST assemblies to 1,019 bp in the current analysis. The number of putative cotton UniGenes with lengths of 3kb or more increased from 25 or 34 to 1,223. As a result, thousands of originally independent G. hirsutum ESTs were aligned to produce large contigs encoding transcripts with very long open reading frames, indicating that the G. raimondii genome sequence provided remarkable advantages to assemble the tetraploid cotton transcriptome.

female has not been studied yet Results: Primary cerebellar g

female has not been studied yet.\n\nResults: Primary cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs), isolated from P7 male and female mice (CD-1) segregated based on visual inspection of sex, were exposed to 2 h of oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) followed IWR-1-endo by 6-24 h of reoxygenation (Reox). Mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta psi(m))

and cellular ATP levels were reduced significantly in XX CGNs as compared to XY CGNs. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content was increased (>2-fold) at 2 h OGD in XY CGNs and remained increased up to 24 h of Reox compared to XX neurons and normoxia controls. The expression of mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), the nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1

alpha (PGC-1 alpha), a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, were up-regulated (2-fold, ***p < 0.001) in XY CGNs but slightly reduced or remained unchanged in XX neurons. Similarly, the TFAM and PGC-1 alpha protein levels and the mitochondrial proteins HSP60 and COXIV were increased in XY neurons only. Supportively, a balanced stimulation of fusion (Mfn 1 and Mfn 2) and fission (Fis 1 and Drp 1) genes and enhanced formation of donut-shaped mitochondria were observed in XY CGNs vs. XX neurons (**p < 0.01).\n\nConclusions: Our results demonstrate that OGD/Reox alters mitochondrial biogenesis LCL161 nmr and morphological changes in a sex-specific way, influencing neuronal injury/survival differently in both sexes.”
“BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to methylmercury (MeHg)

and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been associated with impaired performance on attention tasks in previous studies, but the extent to which these cognitive deficits translate into behavioral problems in the classroom and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remains unknown. By contrast, lead (Pb) exposure in childhood Quizartinib has been associated with ADHD and disruptive behaviors in several studies.\n\nOBJECTIVES: In this study we examined the relation of developmental exposure to MeHg, PCBs, and Pb to behavioral problems at school age in Inuit children exposed through their traditional diet.\n\nMETHODS: In a prospective longitudinal study conducted in the Canadian Arctic, exposure to contaminants was measured at birth and at school age. An assessment of child behavior (n = 279; mean age = 11.3 years) was obtained from the child’s classroom teacher on the Teacher Report Form (TRF) from the Child Behavior Checklist, and the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBD).\n\nRESULTS: Cord blood mercury concentrations were associated with higher TRF symptom scores for attention problems and DBD scores consistent with ADHD. Current blood Pb concentrations were associated with higher TRF symptom scores for externalizing problems and with symptoms of ADHD (hyperactive-impulsive type) based on the DBD.

Our findings suggest that these sharks are either a small

Our findings suggest that these sharks are either a small

proportion of a local population or perhaps an even smaller component of a regional population in the western Indian Ocean. We applied a Lincoln-Petersen closed-population mark-recapture model and a Jolly-Seber open-population model to estimate population size, but found that neither model provided reliable results because key assumptions of each were not met.”
“Background: School travel mode and parenting practices have been associated with children’s physical activity selleck inhibitor (PA). The current study sought to examine whether PA parenting practices differ by school travel mode and whether school travel mode and PA parenting practices are associated with PA. Methods: 469 children (aged 9-11) wore accelerometers from which CA4P mean weekday and after-school (3.30 to 8.30 pm) minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) and counts per minute (CPM) were derived. Mode of travel

to and from school (passive vs. active) and PA parenting practices (maternal and paternal logistic support and modelling behaviour) were child-reported. Results: Children engaged in an average of 59.7 minutes of MVPA per weekday. Active travel to school by girls was associated with 5.9 more minutes of MVPA per day compared with those who travelled to school passively (p = 0.004). After-school CPM and MVPA did not differ by school travel mode. There was no evidence that physical activity parenting practices were associated with school travel mode. Conclusions: For girls, encouraging active travel to school is likely to be important for overall PA. Further formative research may be warranted to understand how both parental logistic support and active travel decisions are operationalized in families as a means of understanding how to promote increased PA among pre-adolescent children.”
“Combining a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test with bronchoscopy is frequently performed to allow a rapid diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). AZD9291 in vitro However, limited data are available concerning clinical

judgment in patients with suspected PTB and AFB smear- and PCR-negative bronchial aspirates (BA). The present study evaluated the usefulness of whole-blood QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) testing in these patients. Of 166 patients with suspected PTB who had undergone bronchoscopy because of smear-negative sputum or inadequate sputum production, 93 (56%) were diagnosed With culture-positive PTB. Seventy-four patients were either AFB smear- or PCR-positive. In the 75 patients whose BA AFB smear and PCR results were both negative. 19 were finally diagnosed with PTB by culture. The QFT test had a negative predictive value of 91% for PTB. The QFT test may be useful for excluding PTB in patients with suspected PTB whose BA AFB smear and PCR results are both negative. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Then, these 97 lines were further genotyped based on resequencing

Then, these 97 lines were further genotyped based on resequencing data, and a resequencing-based physical map was constructed. Compared with the molecular marker-based physical map, the resequencing-based physical map of 97 lines contained 367 substituted

segments with 252 newly discovered segments. The total size of the 367 substituted segments was 1,074Mb, which was 2.81 times the size of rice genome. Using the 97 CSSLs as materials, we identified nine QTLs for heading date and three of them were firstly reported. All the QTLs had positive additive effects, ranging from 9.50 to 16.50 days. These CSSLs may greatly help forge a new resource for functional genomics studies and molecular breeding in rice.”
“BACKGROUNDPatients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) respond to ALK inhibitors. Clinically, the presence click here of 15% cells with rearrangements identified on Staurosporine break-apart

fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) classifies tumors as positive. Increases in native and rearranged ALK copy number also occur.\n\nMETHODSIn total, 1426 NSCLC clinical specimens (174 ALK-positive specimens and 1252 ALK-negative specimens) and 24 ALK-negative NSCLC cell lines were investigated. ALK copy number and genomic status were assessed by FISH.\n\nRESULTSClinical specimens with 0% to 9%, 10% to 15%, 16% to 30%, 31% to 50%, and >50% ALK-positive cells were identified in 79.3%, 8.5%, 1.4%, 2.7%, and 8.1%, respectively. An increased native ALK copy number (3 copies per cell in 40% of cells) was detected in 19% of ALK-positive tumors and in 62% of ALK-negative tumors. In ALK-negative tumors, abundant, focal amplification of native ALK was rare (0.8%). Other atypical patterns occurred in approximately 6% of tumors. The mean native ALK copy number ranged from 2.1 to 6.9 copies in cell lines and was not correlated with crizotinib sensitivity (50% inhibitory concentration,

0.34-2.8 Sapitinib M; r=0.279; P=.1764). Neither native or rearranged ALK copy number nor the percentage of positive cells correlated with extra-central nervous system progression-free survival in ALK-positive patients who were receiving crizotinib.\n\nCONCLUSIONSOverall, 8.5% of tumors fell below the established positivity threshold by 5%. Further investigation of ALK by other diagnostic techniques in such cases may be warranted. Native ALK copy number increases alone were not associated with sensitivity to ALK inhibition in vitro. However, rare, complex patterns of increased native ALK in patients should be studied further; because, otherwise, atypical rearrangements contained within these may be missed. Cancer 2013;119:3968-3975. (c) 2013 American Cancer Society.”
“We conducted a cross-sectional study on prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis among female sex workers (FSWs) recruited from different types of venues in 6 cities in China.

Methods: A descriptive qualitative study was used Seven caretake

Methods: A descriptive qualitative study was used. Seven caretakers were interviewed in their homes. The data were collected through semi-structured interview and analyzed using content analysis. Results: The emerged categories were: caring for the premature baby at home; living and interacting with the premature baby; and, the importance of social support in caring for the premature baby. Conclusions:

The mothers, as caretakers, provided proper care to the premature baby, expressed concerns regarding Selleck ASP2215 the baby’s development and growth, and voiced the need of support to deliver proper care.”
“Evidence for a developmental relationship between B cells and macrophages has led to the hypothesis that B cells evolved from a phagocytic predecessor. The recent identification of phagocytic IgM+ cells in fishes and amphibians supports this hypothesis, but raises the question of when, evolutionarily, was phagocytic capacity lost in B cells? To address this, leucocytes were isolated from red-eared sliders, Trachemys scripta, incubated with fluorescent beads and analysed using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Results indicate that red-eared slider B cells

are able to ingest foreign Doramapimod MAPK inhibitor particles and suggest that ectothermic vertebrates may use phagocytic B cells as part of a robust innate immune response.”
“Reasons for performing the study The National Equine Database (NED) contains information on the size and distribution of the horse population, but the data quality SIS3 inhibitor remains unknown. These data could assist with surveillance, research and contingency planning for equine infectious disease outbreaks. Objectives 1) To assess the extent of obsolete and missing data from NED, 2) evaluate the extent of spatial separation between horse and owner location and 3) identify relationships between spatial separation and land use.

Methods Two questionnaires were used to assess data accuracy in NED utilising local authority passport inspections and distribution of questionnaires to 11,000 horse owners. A subset of 1010 questionnaires was used to assess horseowner geographic separation. Results During 20052010, 17,048 passports were checked through local authority inspections. Of these, 1558 passports (9.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 8.79.5%) were noncompliant, with 963 (5.6%; 95% CI 5.36.0%) containing inaccurate information and 595 (3.5%; 95% CI 3.23.8%) classified as missing. Of 1382 questionnaires completed by horse owners, 380 passports were obsolete (27.5%; 95% CI 25.229.9%), with 162 (11.7%; 95% CI 10.013.4%) being retained for deceased horses and 218 (15.8%; 95% CI 13.917.7%) having incorrect ownership details. Fifty-three per cent (95% CI 49.956.1%) of owners kept their horse(s) at home and 92% (95% CI 90.393.7%) of horses resided within 10km of their owners.