To evaluate BFRS accuracy, each part was analyzed, and to assess

To evaluate BFRS accuracy, each part was analyzed, and to assess the safety and feasibility of percutaneous pedicle screw insertions with the BFRS, GDC-941 cadaveric studies involving 14 levels in the thoracic and lumbar spine regions were conducted on 2 cadavers.

RESULTS: Errors in each part of the system and within the entire system were evaluated. The accuracy of generating coordinates using O-arm images was 0.30 +/- 0.15 mm. The robot demonstrated a duplication value of 4.97 mm RMS and an accuracy of 0.358 mm RMS. Total system error was 1.38 +/- 0.21 mm. The results of the cadaveric studies show that inserted

pedicular screws were adequately located within the spine with no unexpected malpositioning of the screws. The axial angle difference between planned and postoperative data was 2.45 +/- 2.56 degrees, and the sagittal angle difference was 0.71 +/- 1.21 degrees.

CONCLUSION: The BFRS might be helpful in improving the accuracy of percutaneous pedicular screw insertion procedures. In the future, we will attempt to improve the accuracy and reliability of the BFRS and to determine new clinical applications for the BFRS.”
“The regulation of the cell state is a complex process involving several

components. These IBET762 complex dynamics can be modeled using Boolean networks, allowing us to explain the existence of different cell states and the transition between them. Boolean models have been introduced both as specific examples

and as ensemble or distribution network models. However, current ensemble Boolean network models do not make a systematic distinction between different cell components such as epigenetic factors, gene and transcription factors. Consequently, we still do not understand their relative contributions in controlling the cell fate. In this work we introduce and study higher order Boolean networks, which feature an explicit distinction between the different cell components and the types of interactions between them. We show that the stability of the cell state dynamics can be determined solving the eigenvalue problem of a matrix representing the regulatory interactions Glutamate dehydrogenase and their strengths. The qualitative analysis of this problem indicates that, in addition to the classification into stable and chaotic regimes, the cell state can be simple or complex depending on whether it can be deduced from the independent study of its components or not. Finally, we illustrate how the model can be expanded considering higher levels and higher order dynamics. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: Despite research in the anatomical sciences for the last 200 years, some structures of the human body remain controversial or incompletely described. One of these structures is the A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA).

“Many children grow up in bilingual families and


“Many children grow up in bilingual families and

acquire two first languages. Saracatinib Emerging research is advancing the view that the capacity to acquire language can be applied equally to two languages as to one but that bilingual and monolingual acquisition nonetheless differ in some nontrivial ways. To probe the first steps toward acquisition, researchers recently have begun to use experimental methods to study preverbal bilingual infants. We review the literature in this growing field, focusing on how infants growing up bilingual use surface acoustic information to separate, categorize and begin to learn their two languages. These new data invite the expansion of standard linguistic theories to account for how a single architecture can support the acquisition of two languages simultaneously.”
“Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are emerging environmental BIBF 1120 contaminants, but little is known

about their possible human health effects. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between exposure to PBDEs and neuropsychological function among older adults and the possibility of effect modification with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Serum samples were analyzed for concentrations of 9 PBDE and 30 PCB congeners and 34 tests of cognitive and motor function, affective state, and olfactory function were assessed among 144 men and women of 55-74 years of age. After adjustment for relevant confounders, no overall associations were observed between the sum of the PBDE congener concentrations in serum (Sigma PBDE) and scores on the neuropsychological tests. However, statistically significant interactions were found between PBDEs and PCBs for some measures

of verbal learning and memory. Among persons with Sigma PCB concentrations at or above the median of 467 ppb (lipid basis), an increase in Sigma PBDE concentrations from the 25th to 75th percentile was associated with decreases between 7% and 12% on scores for certain subscales of the California Verbal Learning Test. In contrast, no statistically significant below associations were observed for PBDEs among persons with Sigma PCB levels below the median. The results suggest that PBDEs and PCBs may interact to affect verbal memory and learning among persons 55-74 years old. This is the first study to evaluate the neuropsychological effects of PBDEs in adults and the possibility of synergy with PCBs in humans. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Snake venom proteomes are complex mixtures of a large number of distinct proteins. In a sense, the field of snake venom proteomics has been under investigation since the very earliest biochemical studies on venoms where peptides and proteins were isolated and structurally and biologically characterized.

The methodology achieves considerable accuracy at determining bot

The methodology achieves considerable accuracy at determining both what problem-solving step the students are taking and whether they are performing that step correctly. The second “”model discovery”" application involves using statistical model evaluation to

determine how many substates are involved in performing a step of algebraic problem solving. This research indicates that different steps involve different numbers of substates and these substates are associated with different fluency in algebra problem solving. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Estrogens are sex hormones that are central to health and disease in both genders. These hormones have long been recognized to act in complex ways, both through relatively slow genomic mechanisms and via fast non-genomic mechanisms. Several recent in vitro studies suggest that GPR30, or G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1), is a functional membrane estrogen receptor involved selleckchem in non-genomic estrogen signaling. However, this function is not universally

accepted. Studies concerning the role of GPER1 in vivo are now beginning to appear but with divergent results. In this review we discuss current knowledge on the physiological role of GPER1 in the nervous system as well as in reproduction, metabolism, bone, and in the cardiovascular and immune systems.”
“MC3 is a colorectal cancer (CRC)-specific mAb previously prepared in our laboratory that can detect CRC with high sensitivity and specificity. However, the target antigen for MC3 had not been identified due to technological limitations. in the present study, immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry Gilteritinib nmr revealed the expression patterns of MC3 antigen (MC3-Ag) in colon cancer cell lines Calpain and CRC tissues. Western blotting analysis showed that the MC3 antibody reproducibly recognized

two similar to 30 kDa proteins in the total cell lysates of human colon carcinoma cell lines SW480 and HT-29. Using a proteomic approach, we identified two MC3 immunoreactive spots as two isoforms of thioredoxin-like 2 (Txl-2) protein. Further paired immunostaining showed that Txl-2 had the same expression profile as probed by the MC3 antibody. Western blotting also showed that both antibodies could detect the same two bands, further verifying that Txl-2 is the antigen of MC3 antibody. Additionally, tissue arrays revealed the expression patterns of Txl-2 in various normal and cancer tissues. Further analysis showed that Txl-2 mRNA was elevated in 18 cases of CRC tissues compared to paracancerous tissues and adjacent normal tissues.”
“Aims: To simplify the electrotransformation process of Clostridium acetobutylicum, which currently needs to be performed in an anaerobic chamber, thus laborious and time-consuming.

Methods and Results: The CAC2634 gene encoding PerR is a known peroxide regulon repressor in Cl. acetobutylicum. CAC2634 in a previously constructed Restriction-Modification system deficient Cl.

The effects of exogenous PAI-1 and CCK8s on gastric emptying were

The effects of exogenous PAI-1 and CCK8s on gastric emptying were studied after ip administration. Intragastric peptone delayed gastric emptying in C57BL/6 mice by a mechanism sensitive to the CCK-1 receptor antagonist lorglumide. Peptone did not delay gastric emptying in PAI-1-H/K beta mice. Exogenous CCK delayed gastric emptying of a control test meal in C57BL/6 mice and this was attenuated by administration of

PAI-1; exogenous CCK had no effect on emptying in PAI-1-H/K beta mice. Prior administration of gastrin to increase gastric PAI-1 inhibited CCK-dependent effects on gastric emptying in C57BL/6 mice but not in PAI-1 null mice. Thus, both endogenous and exogenous PD0332991 solubility dmso PAI-1 inhibit the effects of CCK (whether exogenous LDC000067 or endogenous) on gastric emptying. The data are compatible with emerging evidence that gastric PAI-1 modulates vagal effects of CCK. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: The classic chromogranin-secretogranin (granin) proteins are produced in the myocardium and throughout the neuroendocrine system, but while chromogranin (Cg) A and B levels are high in the adrenal medulla, secretogranin (Sg) II production is higher in the pituitary gland. Whether these

differences may influence the response to physical activity is not known.

Methods: We measured circulating granin proteins during (1) a short-term maximal bicycle exercise stress test and (2) a 7 day military ranger course of continuous physical activity and sleep and energy deprivation.

Results: In 9 healthy subjects performing the exercise stress test (7 male, age 45 +/- 5 y [mean +/- SEM], duration 10.13 Dipeptidyl peptidase +/- 1.14 min), CgB levels increased from before to immediately after the test: 1.20 +/- 0.12 vs. 1.45 +/- 0.09 nmol/L, p = 0.013. Metabolic equivalents, representing an index of performed work, were closely associated with the change (Delta)

in CgB levels during stress testing and explained 74% of the variability in (Delta)CgB levels (p = 0.004). CgA and SgII levels were not increased after exercise stress testing. In the second cohort of 8 male subjects (age 25 +/- 1 y) participating in the ranger course, CgB levels increased from day 1 and wire significantly elevated on days 5 and 7. CgA also increased gradually with levels significantly elevated on day 7, while SgII was markedly increased on day 5 whereas levels on days 3 and 7 were unchanged compared to baseline levels.

Conclusion: We demonstrate a heterogeneous response to short- and long-term physical activities among circulating granin proteins with the most potent effect on CgB levels. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The sensory neuropeptide, alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide (alpha-CGRP) is protective against hypertension-induced heart damage and cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury.

8; P = 02), family history of TAA (OR = 7 6; P = 04), hypertens

8; P = .02), family history of TAA (OR = 7.6; P = .04), hypertension (OR = 1.7; P = .006), and obesity (OR = 1.7; P = .006). Diabetes, infrarenal AAA location, and smoking have a negative association.

Conclusions: TAAs are relatively common in patients with AAA. Routine or targeted screening with a chest CT at the time of AAA diagnosis may be indicated. (J Vasc Surg 2012;56:1261-5.)”
“Memory dysfunction in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer’s pathology is primarily associated with episodic memory deficits linked to deterioration of the medial temporal lobes (MTLs). click here Currently, there

is a call to discover novel biomarkers of MCI in order to improve research criteria. Functional activation differences in MCI during episodic memory-task performance are often evidenced in the MTLs, and frontal and parietal lobes, but it has been suggested that examination of working memory (WM) differences may be more useful in detecting MCI. In the current study, MCI

and control participants performed a complex WM span (CWMS) Selleck SC79 task while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired. Results indicated hyper-activation of the lateral temporal lobes, MTLs, and frontal and parietal regions during encoding and maintenance, and hyper-activation of the lateral temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes during CWMS recall for the MCI participants. Medial and lateral temporal differences during encoding and maintenance are consistent with previous findings, but lateral temporal differences are often not elaborated upon. Hyper-activation of the lateral temporal lobes during WM encoding and maintenance, and also during recall, suggests that this region may provide valuable information regarding WM impairment in MCI and Alzheimer’s. Given that whole-brain functional imaging of the MTLs is often limited due to artifact and partial voluming of sub-fields, examination of lateral temporal differences may provide a novel biomarker related to WM impairment in

MCI. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder with prominent genetic etiologic factors. The dopamine receptor DRD3 gene is a strong candidate in genetic studies of SCZ because Fossariinae of the dopamine hypothesis of SCZ and the selective expression of D(3) in areas of the limbic system implicated in the disease. We examined 15 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DRD3 in our sample of European origin consisting of 95 small nuclear SCZ families and 167 case-control pairs. We also examined four BDNF SNPs in our samples because of evidence for BDNF regulation of DRD3 expression (Guillin et al., 2001). We found a nominally significant genotypic association with rs7633291 and allelic association with rs1025398 alleles. However, these observations did not survive correction for multiple testing.

Recently, variation in CHRNA4 (rs1044396) has been


Recently, variation in CHRNA4 (rs1044396) has been

shown to affect visual and auditory function, affecting speed and attention, in healthy adults. An association between CHRNA4 variation and PD has not been shown. To determine the link between CHRNA4 variation MK-2206 research buy and attentional deficit in PD. A genotype-phenotype correlation between the common CHRNA4:rs1044396 variant and several baseline parameters of attention was carried out in a large cohort of PD cases (n=222) and controls (n =159). We identified significant associations to measures of attention in PD patients compared to controls. However, we found no significant link to CHRNA4:rs1044396 genotypes to baseline attention variables in PD or in controls. We conclude that CHRNA4:rs1044396 genotypes do not significantly influence the attentional deficit found in PD patients. Contrary to previous studies, we also found no significant influence in healthy age-matched controls. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”

To investigate the effect of lactic acid (LA), copper (II), and monolaurin as

natural antimicrobials against Cronobacter in infant formula.

Methods and Results:

The effect of LA (0 center dot 1, 0 center dot 2 and 0 center dot 3% v/v), copper (II) (10, 50 and 100 mu g ml-1) selleck chemicals and monolaurin (1000, 2000, and 3000 mu g ml-1) suspended into tween-80 (TM) or dissolved in ethanol against Cronobacter in infant formula was investigated. Reconstituted infant formula and powdered infant formula were inoculated with five strains of Cronobacter spp. at the levels of c. 1 x 106 CFU ml-1 and 1 x 103 CFU g-1, respectively. LA GPX6 at 0 center dot 2% v/v had a bacteriostatic effect on Cronobacter growth, whereas 0 center dot 3% v/v LA resulted in c. 3 log(10) reduction. Copper (II) at the levels of 50 mu g ml-1 and 100 mu g ml-1 elicited c. 1 and 2 log(10) reductions, respectively. The combination of 0 center dot 2% LA and 50 mu g ml-1 copper (II) resulted in a complete elimination of the organism. Monolaurin exhibited a slight inhibitory activity against

Cronobacter (c. 1 center dot 5 log(10) difference) compared to the control when ethanol was used to deliver monolaurin.


A complete elimination of Cronobacter was obtained when a combination of sublethal concentrations of LA (0 center dot 2%) and copper (II) (50 mu g ml-1) was used.

Significance and Impact of the Study:

The use of the synergistic interactive combination of LA and copper (II) could be beneficial to control Cronobacter in the infant formula industry.”
“This protocol describes the immunofluorescence staining of floating neurospheres in culture plates. Although this protocol is similar to conventional immunofluorescence staining, the staining procedure of floating neurospheres in multiwell culture plates and the washing procedure are different. Neurospheres in culture plates are transferred to a 12-well plate using a 200-1000 mu L pipette.

Used rinderpest devices from field diagnosed rinderpest-positive

Used rinderpest devices from field diagnosed rinderpest-positive animals could represent an ideal additional sample for submission to the Reference Laboratories for confirmation ICG-001 manufacturer of preliminary diagnosis in the field. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Endovascular occlusion of the fistula has been the most widely accepted treatment for cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (CS-dAVF). Although the CS-dAVF prognosis is generally good, physicians have noted poor recoveries, paradoxical worsening, or recurrences in some cases. In this study, we

sought to identify factors that influence the prognoses of CS-dAVF patients.

We enrolled 76 patients diagnosed with CS-dAVF by conventional angiography in this study and analyzed their medical records for a mean follow-up period of 20 months. We assessed the clinical and radiological factors associated with poor recovery, paradoxical worsening, and recurrence.

The 76 CS-dAVF patients (25 men, 51 women,

ages 24 to 77 years) underwent treatment via transvenous and/or transarterial embolization. Initially, we achieved successful occlusion in 64 patients (84.2%). Of the treated patients, 53 (69.7%) were cured, 14 (18.4%) showed significant improvement, and nine (11.8%) remained static or worsened. Poor recovery was associated with significant residual shunt after embolization and with a late-restrictive CS-dAVF type. Among the AZD6244 solubility dmso 64 initially occluded patients, paradoxical worsening was more frequent in patients who

had a greater number of draining veins. Recurrence was more prevalent in younger patients.

CS-dAVF can have eccentric features, such as lasting symptoms, paradoxical worsening, and recurrence after embolization. Poor recovery was associated with residual shunt and with the late-restrictive type, paradoxical worsening was associated with number of draining veins, and recurrence occurred more often in younger patients.”
“HIV-1 viral load determination is a crucial step for monitoring the efficacy of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and predicts disease progression. Real-time PCR SB-3CT based assays are available for monitoring the viral load. They differ in sensitivity, genomic target region and dynamic range. In this study, the performance of the Roche Cobas Taqman HIV-1 v2.0 was evaluated on plasma samples from HIV-1 positive patients in parallel with the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay in a routine diagnostic setting. Overall, there was a good agreement between the two assays. However, some samples detected by the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay but below the limit of quantitation of the assay were found negative result when tested with the Roche Cobas Taqman HIV-1 v2.0. It is conceivable that signal anomalies or background noise may affect the lower-end precision of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay.

The overexpression of the MexAB-OprM and MexXY-OprM efflux system

The overexpression of the MexAB-OprM and MexXY-OprM efflux systems were more frequent among antimicrobial resistant P. aeruginosa isolates. Since MexAB-OprM and MexXY-OprM are constitutively expressed in wild type P. aeruginosa isolates, the antimicrobial policy in use in each individual institution may interfere with the selection of the most overexpressed efflux system. Aminoglycosides are important substrates of MexXY-OprM and might have exerted a role in selecting P. aeruginosa that overexpressed this system [18]. The expression

of MexXY-OprM is inducible, while expression of MexAB-OprM is not [5]. In our institution, the prescription of aminoglycosides is not controlled and these antimicrobial agents usually are prescribed in combination for treatment of P. aeruginosa infections. These facts could in part justify why MexXY-OprM was the most frequent

overexpressed efflux system, since mexXY expression may be induced by these antimicrobial class [19]. Interestingly, the overexpression of MexXY-OprM was observed in all MBL-producing isolates. We did not notice a strict correlation between antimicrobial resistance and efflux genes overexpression. However, efflux overexpressing isolates often presented higher antimicrobial MICs than did PAO1 and those isolates in which no antimicrobial resistance determinant was found. Our findings clearly demonstrate that β-lactamase production increase antimicrobial MICs more efficiently than do efflux overexpression or porin down-regulation alone. However, these chromosomal resistance mechanisms were frequently present among acquired β-lactamase producers. Selleckchem NU7441 These findings suggest that efflux overexpression and porin down-regulation may favor the LY294002 concentration Bacterial survival

under selective pressure, increasing its chance to acquire further resistance determinants. In the present study we have observed that efflux pump overexpression do not appear to be the main mechanism of drug resistance among the studied clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa, but represents an adjuvant mechanism for antimicrobial resistance. The association of distinct mechanisms such as the porin down-regulation and AmpC overproduction play also an important role in the multi-drug resistance phenotype among P. aeruginosa clinical isolates Amoxicillin studied. In addition, our findings indicate that spread of clones and emergency of distinct genotypes have occurred in our institution and implementation of control measures is extremely necessary to modify this scenario. Methods Bacterial isolates and antimicrobial susceptibility testing With the approval of the local Ethics in Research committee (Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa Hospital São Paulo, protocol number: CEP0398/07), a total of 59 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were evaluated, regardless of their antimicrobial susceptibility profile.

This implies deposition of a relatively thin lipid layer around t

This implies deposition of a relatively thin lipid layer around the Fe3O4 core that did not dramatically impact oscillation and relaxation of these superparamagnetic nanocomposites. This conclusion is further supported by the absence of significant change in temperature profile around the anticipated melting temperature of 41°C. Review

of hyperthermia kinetics, however, suggests that the design of the magnetic field generator significantly impacts conversion of electromagnetic energy into heat. Most notably, heating profiles generated in the MFG-1000 begin at room temperature and appear to plateau after 30 min around 50°C. In contrast, temperature profiles measured in MHS, which was maintained PS-341 at 37°C prior to initiation of the alternating magnetic field, revealed a maximum temperature of only 43°C despite a two-fold stronger magnetic field. It is hypothesized that the large space in the experimental device designed to accommodate test samples up to small animals

acts as an effective heat sink preventing temperature increases above 43°C. It remains to be explored whether the apparent steady-state temperature of 43°C can be maintained in preclinical animals Selleckchem Dibutyryl-cAMP without the adjustment of the magnetic field. If required, a feedback loop could be engineered into this device that facilitates real-time field adjustments using a coupled sensor circuit. However, the results from this study demonstrate the feasibility of effectively raising the temperature of this magnetic fluid to the clinically relevant hyperthermia range of 40°C to 45°C within 10 min using alternating magnetic fields between 7 and 17 mT. Figure 2 Heating behavior of uncoated and lipid-coated SPIONs within an alternating magnetic field. Uncoated (open symbols) and lipid-coated (closed symbols) Fe3O4 nanoparticles suspended at 0.02 mg/mL in citrate buffer, pH 7.4, were exposed in the MGS-1000 to an alternating magnetic field of 7.0 mT at 1.0 MHz (circles) and in the MHS to 16.6 mT at 13.6 to MHz (squares). Temperature of suspension vehicle was recorded using an optical fiber probe. Data

are shown as mean ± SD (n = 3). Heat production by SPIONs following exposure to an alternating magnetic field are consequences of several types of loss processes, including hysteresis as well as Néel and Brownian relaxations [26, 27]. Brownian relaxation loss is due to the physical rotation of the particles within the fluid whereas Néel relaxation loss occurs when magnetic moments of individual nanoparticles overcome the energy barrier between easy axis orientations. The time delay between the alignment time and effective relaxation time results in an energy transfer from the SPIONs to the surrounding environment [26, 28]. Initial heating rates represent inherent thermal properties of the material tested without system-associated limitations (e.g.

b More information about orfs listed here is available in Table 1

b More information about orfs listed here is available in Table 1. Sequencing Amplicons were sequenced by primer walking using an ABI 3730xl DNA Analyzer (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) at the Beijing Genomics Institute (Beijing, China). Sequences were assembled using the SeqMan II program in the Lasergene package

(DNASTAR Inc, Madison, WI) and similarity searches were carried out using BLAST programs (http://​www.​ncbi.​nlm.​nih.​gov/​BLAST/​). The putative function of proteins was analyzed using the InterProScan tool (http://​www.​ebi.​ac.​uk/​Tools/​pfa/​iprscan/​). Nucleotide sequences accession number. The complete sequence of the genetic context of mecA in WCH1 has been deposited in GenBank as JQ764731. Acknowledgments This work was supported by a grant from selleck screening library the Project Sponsored by the Scientific Research

Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry. Part of this work has been presented (abstract number 1176) at the 22nd European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, March 31 to April 3, 2012, London, UK. The CH5424802 cell line author is grateful for Yanyu Gao for performing the susceptibility test. References 1. Hartman BJ, Tomasz A: Low-affinity penicillin-binding protein associated with β-lactam selleck chemicals llc resistance in Staphylococcus aureus . J Bacteriol 1984, 158:513–516.PubMed 2. Hanssen AM, Ericson Sollid JU: SCC mec in staphylococci: genes on the move. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2006, 46:8–20.PubMedCrossRef Immune system 3. International Working Group on the Classification of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome Elements: Classification

of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec ): guidelines for reporting novel SCC mec elements. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2009, 53:4961–4967.CrossRef 4. Hanssen AM, Sollid JU: Multiple staphylococcal cassette chromosomes and allelic variants of cassette chromosome recombinases in Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci from Norway. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2007, 51:1671–1677.PubMedCrossRef 5. Berglund C, Soderquist B: The origin of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolate at a neonatal ward in Sweden-possible horizontal transfer of a staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec between methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus aureus . Clin Microbiol Infect 2008, 14:1048–1056.PubMedCrossRef 6.