Given the promising data, a larger study to reproduce and confirm the results for everyone and each of the pilot studies would be desirable.
More than 7000 languages currently exist in this world, and 43% of them are based on subject–object–verb (SOV) word order, including Japanese (Greenberg 1966; Lewis 2009). For example, the English sentence “Taro (S) read (V) a book (O)” is translated in Japanese as “Taro-ga (S) Hon-o (O) Yonda (V)” [Taro (S) a book (O) read (V)]. A sentence Sorafenib structure in SVO word order, like in English, can be determined at an earlier stage in the sentence because the head (verb) comes second in the order. By contrast, a sentence Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical structure in the SOV word order, as in Japanese,
cannot be recognized the same way because the head (verb) is not stated until the end of the sentence. These variations in language typology have been Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical explored in psycholinguistic and cognitive processing models. Kamide (2006) and Yokoyama et al. (2012a) proposed a model in which Japanese sentences are incrementally processed before the head is inputted. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Japanese has ga as the nominative marker, o as the accusative marker, and ni as the dative marker. Muraoka (2006) and Yasunaga et al. (2010) stated that the information contained in a case particle (e.g., ni or o) affects the prediction or anticipation of elements that will appear next. Therefore, the information contained in case particles
plays a key role in the incremental process Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of interpreting the sentence before the verb appears. This difference between SOV languages and SVO
languages is explored in a recent review of neuroimaging research (Hashimoto et al. 2012). However, only a few studies have investigated the processing of case particles in the brain. Inui et al. (2007) examined the characteristics of case particle processing by showing click this participants case particles and non-case particles without any other sentence information Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (e.g., “X ga” (particle) or “X nu” (non-particle)) and asking them to judge whether it was a case particle or not. After comparing these results with those from a phonological task in which participants were required to judge whether the sound of o was included in a single Japanese character (hiragana) by using GSK-3 a block design, Inui et al. concluded that the left IFG is the region responsible for case particle processing in Japanese. Furthermore, Ogawa et al. (2007) and Ikuta et al. (2006) investigated the temporal dynamics of brain activity during sentence comprehension by analyzing stimulation when simple Japanese components are sequentially presented. Both studies reported left IFG activation during the stage of particle (or noun + particle) presentation. These results indicate that case particle processing is strongly associated with the left IFG. However, research on the neural representation of individual case particles is lacking.