CONCLUSIONS: In young patients, colorectal liver metastases seem to be more aggressive, with a trend toward lower OS, more disease recurrences, and a significantly shorter PFS after hepatectomy. However, DFS rates were comparable between young and older patients, owing to an aggressive multimodality treatment approach, consisting of chemotherapy and repeat surgery. Therefore, physicians should recognize the poor outcome of colorectal liver metastases in young patients and should consider an
aggressive approach to diagnosis and early treatment. Cancer P005091 datasheet 2010;116:647-58.(C) 2009 American Cancer Society.”
“Two-stage designs offer substantial advantages for early phase II studies. The interim analysis following the first stage allows the
study to he stopped for futility, or more positively, it might lead to early progression to the trials needed for late phase H and phase III. If the study is to continue to its second stage, then there is an opportunity for a revision of the total sample size. Two-stage designs have been implemented widely in oncology LY294002 inhibitor studies in which there is a single treatment arm and patient responses are binary. In this paper the case of two-arm comparative studies in which responses are quantitative is considered. This setting is common in therapeutic areas other than oncology. It will be assumed that observations are normally distributed, but that there is some doubt concerning their standard deviation, motivating the need for sample size review. The work reported has been motivated by a study in diabetic neuropathic pain, and the development HDAC inhibitor of the design for that trial is described in detail. Copyright (C) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“There is indicative epidemiological evidence that exposures of children
younger than about 10 years are linked with an increased risk of the development of malignant melanoma as well as non-melanocytic skin cancers later in life. However, an important area of uncertainty relates to lack of knowledge of the sun-sensitivity of children’s skin both absolutely and relative to that of adult’s skin. For example the thickness of children’s skin is very similar to that of adults but due to the nature of the anatomical structure of children’s skin, there are indications of children’s skin being adversely exposed on the top of the papilla before a significant exposure manifests itself as visible damage to the skin (for example erythema). This might also affect the induction of heavily UV-damaged cells persisting in the basal layer of the epidermis after UV-exposure which are supposed to be keratinocytic epidermal stem cells and may characterize an initiation step of non-melanoncytic skin cancer. For malignant melanoma the number of nevi received in dependence of UV-exposure in childhood is a clear risk factor.