(C) 2012 Elsevier B V All rights reserved “
“Twenty-five Ba

(C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Twenty-five Bacillus strains capable of producing gamma-polyglutamic acid (PGA) were isolated from fermented locust bean products manufactured in the savanna area of

Ghana. To clarify the phylogeny of these PGA-producing strains, phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of 16S rDNA, rpoB (RNA polymerase P-subunit) and fus (elongation factor G) genes selleck chemicals llc were performed. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rDNA indicated that ten isolates were clustered in the same group of Bacillus subtilis. Another ten isolates were located in the cluster of B. amyloliquefaciens, and the remaining isolates were identified as B. pumilus (three isolates) and B. licheniformis (two isolates), respectively. Phylogenetic trees based on the partial sequences of rpoB and fus genes were similar www.selleckchem.com/products/Nutlin-3.html to the phylogeny based on 16S rDNA sequences. Thirty-four strains in 27 species belonging to the genus Bacillus and its neighbors were also investigated for PGA production. It was found that PGA was produced by B. amyloliquefaciens NBRC 14141 and NBRC 15535(T),

B. atrophaeus NBRC 15539(T), B. licheniformis NBRC 12107, B. mojavensis NBRC 1571 8(T), B. pumilus NBRC 12094, B. subtilis NBRC 16449, and Lysinibacillus sphaericus NBRC 3525. Except for L. sphaericus, the above Bacillus species are very closely related in phylogeny, indicating that PGA-producing Bacillus strains constitute a cluster.”
“The mechanisms of abnormal high pressures are studied in this paper, and it is concluded that the undercompaction, hydrocarbon generation and stratum denudation are obviously effective to fluid pressure buildup. Because of the episodic difference, the hydrocarbon generation and stratum denudation are the main factors influencing https://www.selleckchem.com/products/MK-2206.html oil-gas migration. On the basis of basin evolutionary analysis in the Dongying Sag, it is considered that the undercompaction mainly caused the abnormal pressure before the first denudation by the uplift

in Late Paleogene, while hydrocarbon generation was the main factor of abnormal pressure after the denudation. The second denudation occurred in Late Neogene, which changed the pressure field and induced the fluid migration. The development of overpressures is the necessary condition to the formation of lithologic hydrocarbon reservoirs, which have positive correlations to overpressures. According to the fullness of the present reservoirs, the quantitative relations between oil-bearing property and driving forces of reservoir formation were determined, the latter were decided by dynamic source, reservoir capillary pressure, fluid pressure of surrounding rocks and the dynamic attenuation in different conducting systems.”
“Hepatitis B virus infection is a major public health problem worldwide. Islamic Republic of Iran is a Country in which hepatitis B prevalence is intermediate.

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