80. Therefore, with an expectation of subject dropout, a final sample size of n = 15 in each experimental group and n = 10 in the control group were recruited. The study SIS3 chemical structure was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (ID NCT01941368). Research
design A double-blind, placebo-controlled design, stratified for gender, was used to examine the effects of HMBFA and HIIT training on measures of metabolic performance. Each participant was required to visit the Human Performance Laboratory on four separate occasions for pre- and post- testing, with each testing session occurring on DZNeP in vivo nonconsecutive days. The same testing protocols were repeated at the beginning and end of the 4-week training period. On the first testing day, anthropometric measures of participants were collected (Table 1). Each participant then performed a graded exercise test to determine peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak), time to exhaustion (Tmax), respiratory compensation point (RCP), and ventilatory threshold (VT). The peak wattage achieved during this test was used to establish individual training intensity. On the second day of testing, a baseline blood draw was performed to measure serum HMB, and total lean soft tissue (TLST) and body fat percentage (BF) were assessed PU-H71 price using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)
(Prodigy™; Lunar Corporation, Madison, WI, USA). After baseline testing, the participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a control group (CTL), a placebo with HIIT group (PLA-HIIT) or HMBFA with HIIT group (HMBFA-HIIT). Of the 40 subjects that were recruited for this study, 10 subjects were assigned to CTL and 15 to each of the training groups (PLA-HIIT or HMBFA-HIIT). Exercise protocol Participants in the PLA-HIIT and HMBFA-HIIT groups participated in 4-weeks of high-intensity interval Progesterone training with three sessions per week—with at least one day between each training session—on a
calibrated, electronically-braked cycle ergometer (Lode Corival 400, Groningen, the Netherlands). The exercise training program consisted of alternating training sessions of sub-maximal and supra-maximal workloads (Figure 1). Each participant’s training load was determined as a percentage of the peak power output (Ppeak) from the graded exercise test. Individuals began each training session with a 5-minute warm up at a self-selected wattage, followed by an exercise protocol of five 2-minute exercise bouts at a predetermined percentage of their power output at VO2peak. Between each exercise bout, the participant had 1 minute of complete rest. In the event that there was an inability to complete the entire 2-min exercise bout, the participant completed the 1-min rest period and attempted subsequent bouts. Total time completed and power output was recorded for each exercise session to calculate total training volume (Power output (Watts) × Total time = Training Volume).