Our findings suggest the possible use of 3D nanostructure materia

Our findings suggest the possible use of 3D nanostructure material grown by a facile hydrothermal method for sensitized solar cell studies. The drawback of this type of solar cell is a rather poor fill factor, which limits the energy conversion efficiency.

This low fill factor may be ascribed to the lower hole recovery rate of the polysulfide electrolyte, which leads to a higher probability for charge recombination [24]. To further improve the efficiency of these nanorod array solar cells, we advise that a new hole transport medium with suitable redox potential and low electron recombination at the semiconductor and electrolyte interface should be developed. Moreover, as reported by Soel et al., other contributions such as the counter Cell Cycle inhibitor electrode material may also influence the fill factor Belinostat [25]. Conclusions With a facile hydrothermal method,

the single-crystalline TiO2 nanorod arrays were successfully grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass. Next, Sb2S3 nanoparticles were deposited by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method to form a Sb2S3-TiO2 nanostructure for solar cell applications. CHIR98014 cost annealing treatment was conducted under varied temperatures, and the optimal annealing temperature of 300°C was obtained. Obvious enhancement in visible light absorption was observed for the annealed samples. The photovoltaic performance for solar cells based on annealed Sb2S3-TiO2 nanostructure shows an increase of up to 219% in power conversion efficiency. Acknowledgments This work was supported by the MYO10 National

Key Basic Research Program of China (2013CB922303, 2010CB833103), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (60976073, 11274201, 51231007), the 111 Project (B13029), the National Found for Fostering Talents of Basic Science (J1103212), and the Foundation for Outstanding Young Scientist in Shandong Province (BS2010CL036). References 1. O’Regan B, Grätzel M: A low-cost, high-efficiency solar-cell based on dye-sensitized colloidal TiO2 films. Nature 1991, 353:737.CrossRef 2. Grätzel M: Photoelectrochemical cells. Nature 2001, 414:338.CrossRef 3. Kao MC, Chen HZ, Young SL, Lin CC, Kung CY: Structure and photovoltaic properties of ZnO nanowire for dye-sensitized solar cells. Nanoscale Res Lett 2012, 7:260.CrossRef 4. Lu LY, Chen JJ, Li LJ, Wang WY: Direct synthesis of vertically aligned ZnO nanowires on FTO substrates using a CVD method and the improvement of photovoltaic performance. Nanoscale Res Lett 2012, 7:293.CrossRef 5. Hossain MF, Zhang ZH, Takahashi T: Novel micro-ring structured ZnO photoelectrode for dye-sensitized solar cell. Nano-Micro Lett 2010, 2:53. 6. Yasuo C, Ashraful I, Yuki W, Ryoichi K, Naoki K, HAN LY: Dye-sensitized solar cells with conversion efficiency of 11.1%. Jpn J Appl Phys 2006, 45:638.CrossRef 7. Sun WT, Yu Y, Pan HY, Gao XF, Chen Q, Peng LM: CdS quantum dots sensitized TiO2 nanotube-array photoelectrodes.

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