Methods Selection criteria The current study was approved by an i

Methods Selection criteria The current study was approved by an institutional review board and ethics committee. Informed consent was obtained from all patients regarding access to their medical records. This study analysed 131 consecutive patients with high volume disease who underwent CRS combined with PIC between February 1996 and January 2009. High volume disease was arbitrarily defined as PCI ≥16. We have previously shown a significantly increased risk of massive Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical blood transfusion in patients with a PCI ≥16 (6). Patients were

deemed suitable for CRS and PIC through consensus of a multidisciplinary team. All patients had biopsy confirmed diagnosis of peritoneal carcinomatosis. Preoperative investigations Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical performed to aid disease assessment included history, physical learn more examination, tumour markers and contrast enhanced abdominal, pelvic and chest CT. Positron emission tomography (PET) was performed in recent years for patients with a diagnosis of colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis and selectively in other high-grade disease types. CRS and PIC

was offered to patients who were <80 years old, with a good performance status (World Health Performance Status ≤2), and adequate hematological, hepatic, cardiac and liver function. Patients with extra-abdominal metastasis Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical were excluded. Patients were admitted day before surgery. On admission, 5,000 units of subcutaneous heparin were administered twice a day to all patients. The anaesthesia risk was assessed by using the American Society of Anaesthesiologists Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (ASA) classification (11). Cytoreductive surgery All cytoreductive procedures were performed by a single surgeon (D.L.M.). The volume

and extent of the tumour deposits were recorded using the Peritoneal Cancer Index (PCI) proposed by Sugarbaker (7). Peritonectomy procedures were then performed according to Sugarbaker’s guidelines (12). Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical These included total anterior parietal peritonectomy, omentectomy ± splenectomy, right and left upper quadrant peritonectomy, pelvic peritonectomy and lesser omentectomy ± cholecystectomy. Omentectomy was performed where indicated. Commensurate with the findings of other studies it was performed in the majority of, but not all, patients (13). The below standard dissection tool was the 0.3 mm ball-tip diathermy. This minimised blood loss from small vessels up to 1.5 mm in diameter. Larger vessels were electro-coagulated or ligated in continuity and divided. Visceral resections were performed at anatomic sites where tumour deposits were infiltrating deeply into an organ rendering surface excision ineffectual. The aim of CRS was to achieve no visible disease. Following the surgical procedures all sites and volumes of residual disease were prospectively recorded using the Completeness of Cytoreduction (CCR) Score (11). The abdomen was explored for hemostasis to prevent blood loss during HIPEC or after abdominal closure.

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