lls are fundamental in the mussel immunity, it is not clear if ce

lls are fundamental in the mussel immunity, it is not clear if cells other than hemocytes contribute product information to the complex spectrum of rapid innate responses to potential pathogens. Consistent with a more general view linking immunity to metabolism and other body processes, typical immune genes and proteins should also be expressed in non immune cells, tissues and organs. For instance, the expres sion of C1q TNF like molecules has been detected in various tissues, with hemocytes showing the greatest levels, and throughout the development of M. galloprovincialis. Similar to cells of the vertebrate monocyte macro phage lineage, PAMP activated immunocytes achieve pathogen elimination essentially through chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and cytotoxic processes.

In the Medi terranean mussel, agranular hemocytes are cells able to divide as they show replication dependent chromosomal damage whereas the heterogeneous and abundant granulocytes can be regarded as differentiated cells, mostly phagocytic and able to release antimicrobial pep tides. Accordingly, distinct hemocyte subpopula tions appear to respond to potential pathogens with specific patterns of gene expression. In addition to the host response, pathogen related and physico chemical factors are other main determinants of disease onset and mortality in aquacultured bivalves. The survival and niche occupation of Vibrio cells in changeable habitats depend on the overall nutritional versatility of these bac teria, chemico physical conditions for growth but also on the expression of hemagglutinins or lectins mediating the interaction with host cells and active secretions able to inhibit or disrupt the host defence reactions such as proteases, pore forming hemolysins, ciliostatic and hemocyte killer toxins.

As suggested for V. harvey, the modulation of signalling pathways essen tial to the antimicrobial immune response is an addi tional way to attack and escape the host response. Testing the Immunochip performance with hemocytes sampled at 3 and 48 h from Vibrio injected mussels revealed a general AMP downregulation, possibly related to the toxicity of live bacteria and contrasting the enhanced response to the stimulus obtained with heat killed bacteria. According to quantitative real time PCR assays performed on the hemolymph cells, the injection of control mussels with saline solution did not affect the expression of immune relevant genes, namely mytilin B, myticin B, defensin, lysozyme and HSP70.

The increase in transcriptional changes from 3 to 48 h and the slight prevalence of down regulation sig nals at 48 h in the hemocytes of mussels injected with 10 million potentially infective V. splendidus cells mark an incoming functional decline. Indeed, Batimastat a not negligible fraction of the Vibrio injected mussels showed very slow or unapparent reactivity at 48 h whereas no mor tality was observed at 3 h or in the control mussels injected with selleck chemicals MG132 the saline solution only. As Spanish and French mussels injected in parallel

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>